Stories from the Korean War

Click on any of the videos to hear stories of Korean War veterans from different parts of the world!

>> I came to Australia in 1968. >> Your name? >> Brian Edwards, ex-Lance Corporal, Royal Military, please. So I served in Korea from 1951, August, until 1952, August, where I served with the 28th Brigade, and the brigade at that time consisted of the Third Battalion Royal Australia Regiment, and apart from the King's Own Scottish Borderers and one or two other regiments, but the bulk of it was the Australians. That's why I'm affiliated with the Australian branch of Korean vets, so you want me to say something about whatever? Okay. My duty as a military policeman, apart from keeping law and order among the ranks, we have to assign the routes for troop movement, and my job was assigning routes for the 28th Brigade, mainly the Australians, whenever they were moved anywhere, and I had to sign the routes right up to the forward line to make sure they knew where they were going, and then once I'd done my job, then the troops would move in. We normally was the first in with an engineer or signals. The engineers would clear the mines. Signals would establish telephone points, and I used to point the signs down and say this is where this battalion or the second is going, so that's what a military policeman does in war. He's usually the first in and the last out to make sure all the wounded go out and everything is cared for apart from looking after all the roads, making sure all the roads are clear, so it's a big job, but it's good, and it's a rewarding job, and you usually do 3 months in the forward area and 3 months in reserve, but whilst I were in reserve in April '52, I escorted the First Battalion or Australian Regiment to relieve the third battalion, which was in the line, from Incheon. That was just the transport section. The other troops arrived Busan, and then came by road, so it was interesting job. You had to know the roads. You had to keep the roads clear, and you had to keep ammunition and supplies going to the front, and you had to make sure the wounded and/or dead were back behind the lines, so that's what a military policeman does in war, and that's how I was sort of affiliated with the Australians. >> But you're British. >> When did you come to Australia? >> 1968, so I've been in Australia quite a while. >> Were there other countries that sent their military policemen? >> Yeah, most countries did, but the British military police was probably the first big one. The Americans did have police there, but they didn't do as much as what the British ones did. >> You're actually the first military policeman that I have interviewed. >> There you are. >> I didn't even know. >> And we all wore red hats. >> Can you put it in? >> All right. >> Wow. Wow, looks handsome. >> But it wasn't a hat like this we wore. It was more what we called a cheese-cutter where it had a big down where it had a red top on. I should have brought ... I've still got the red top I had there, but it's got a few holes in it now. Just I remember one time. It was the battle of Maryang-san. That was on the 3rd of October to the 8th. I, as a policeman, assign the route from the 28th of September before we moved the brigade up on the 3rd of October, and it was during that time ... I think ... In that battle, I think 30,000 wounds of shells went in, and I think we took 20,000 back, and that was on a crossroads. There was the enemy there. There was a road to Goheung down there, and there was the British. 29th Brigade was up there at one time, but on the 3rd or 5th of October, I had the bring the 28th Brigade up, so I was the last man. My mission dropped off at various points on the road, and I was the last one on, and I took control of this crossroads, and the shells was coming in at us, and a soldier from there took my into a ditch, and he said, "It's that hat of yours, which they're using as a target," and he was commander of a tank regiment. All the tanks were lined up there, and he was right. The shells were on it. What the hell? Just one cool experience that we came across. >> Wow. >> It was exciting. I was 19, and I think my first job when it comes to a large road was to stop a truck going too fast, and I asked him why he'd gotten ... Because he was creating dust, and you can't have dust in the war area, and he said, "I want to know where the graves commission is." He had dead bodies. At 19, it was bit confronting [INAUDIBLE]. There you are, but I'm here and thankful.
>> My name is Jon Muller. I served in the Royal Australian Navy. I was a young sailor at the time and served on the HMAS Sydney. We [INAUDIBLE] up there. We had Christmas 1951 in Japan, well, in Korea, but we were back at Kure Harbor, and I remember that quite well because my father's friend, Sergeant Jet Kessels, he was back in Korea in Kure [INAUDIBLE], and I went there on Christmas afternoon and caught up with him and some of his friends and then had to go back on my ship, and this Aboriginal captain, Rhett Saunders, he said, "I'll drive you back." I said, "Oh, no, I'll get a taxi." "No, no, I'll drive you back," he said, and Captain Rhett Saunders drove me back to the ship. When I got there, he got out and opened the door and [INAUDIBLE]. He said, "Oh, I'm the officer coming on board. [INAUDIBLE] officer today, but the only bloke who came on board was this young sailor." But that was it. It was Christmas. We had to sail, and we had to have ... [INAUDIBLE] one morning. They said volunteers required to sweep the [INAUDIBLE] to get the planes on, and the Queenslanders and West Australians all jumped out of their hammocks, and away they went. Second morning, a few of them did but not all of them. Then on the third morning, [INAUDIBLE], flight deck, so they were forced to go up and sweep the ... [INAUDIBLE], but that was good. We had lots of ships around us, and we lost a couple of planes and a couple of [INAUDIBLE] unfortunately, but, yeah, that's about it from there, I think. >> Where do you take pride in the sailors? >> Sorry? >> Your comrades, the sailors, Australian Navy, you must be proud of your contributions in the Korean War. >> Yeah, well, I agree, much proud. >> Mm-hmm. >> And I still think about all of the things I did, and I'm also very proud of what the Korean government have done since. I remember going back there, 40th anniversary of [INAUDIBLE] with Jim Hughes and Greg McTheran, and I went back last year subject benefit of [INAUDIBLE] did the whole thing, and just the difference is still ... Twenty years, look at the difference. It's like I'd never been there, and you've done a great job. She contributed a lot of money to the museum there, and all the countries are represented there [INAUDIBLE] around areas of the museum, very, very impressive and thankful for that. >> Well, thank you for your contribution. >> Thank you. >> Thank you.
>> Hello there, my name is Laurie Krause. I served with the Royal Australian Air Force on the 77th Squadron, based at Kimpo Air Base just northwest of Seoul. I was there in October '52 to April '53, mainly the winter, although when I first got there, it was summer there or the end of autumn, and middling cold in the winter, I remember that for sure. I think all Korean veterans in the winter remember that. I was an armorer and serviced all the [INAUDIBLE] aircraft we had. At that time, they were reduced to ground support, and they supported, earlier on, the squadrons supported the troops at the Battle of Kapyong, where the Australian Army, along with the others, were awarded the U.S. Presidential Citation, which was a great honor for the troops that were involved in that battle. One of the worst things I remember is a lot of times when the pilots took off, and they never come back, some of them that I knew very well. One come from my city of Geelong who I knew very well, and I'm afraid he'd never come back one day, and he's never been found. He's one of the MIAs, but we lived intense there in the winter, and that's why we think of Korea as being a cold country, but not the people. The people are very good to us in their latter years. They remember. The children here in Melbourne remember the hardships that their grandparents went through, through either the stories told to them or their parents, and every year in Melbourne, we attend a Korean church service, along with the beautiful Korean community, and the Australians who attend are extremely grateful for the kindness that is offered to us veterans. I'd like to say to the American people, "You've got a beautiful memorial in Washington," and we have to have one built here very shortly in Melbourne. It's taken a long time, but finally we are going to have one. On Kimpo Air Base, we had a lot of fraternizing with the Americans, and we had ... All the tanker drivers were America drivers, and we got along very, very well with them. I don't think I've got much else all to say except may God bless you all, and as I say, Hannah is telling us, like hair, we're disappearing into the sunset. Thank you very much, and God bless again.
>> Well, my name is Kevin Collin Joseph Berriman, commonly known as Col. I joined the Army on the 25th of October 1951, on my 17th birthday, as the Korea War was waging at that time. However, as I was underaged, at 17, you weren't allowed to go into active service until you were 19. So therefore, the first 2 years of my Army life was spent waiting to go to Korea, in fact. I finally made it just after the Armistice when I went back for a second tour on the line. When we arrived, we did not have to put up with the shelling and the major fighting patrol activity, however, when I arrived my immediate thought was the sympathy for the people, and most of the populous was in starvation at that time. It was a terrible time for the South Korean people. When we arrived, there was still activity up on the DMZ. We established the demarcation zone, and our main activity at the time was patrolling inside the zone, which was allowed in those days. We patrolled one side, and the Chinese, who were still there, patrolled the other side, and we used to to wave to each other occasionally in the center. There was still activity with North Korea crossing the border on several occasions. Of course, we had to keep the whole area fortified, and I served there for approximately 12 months in that activity. There were several clashes on the border at that time, and I was injured during one of them where we had to chase some suspects. We chased them into a mine field. Well, we didn't ever find out who they ... I'll have to stop. Anyway, we never got to catch the four that we were chasing. We saw them, nearly caught them, but they went into a mine field, and we stopped the chase, but sadly saw them ... Well, we couldn't interview them because there was nothing left of them to interview after that. During the chase, I sadly fell down a ravine, and I didn't know it at the time, but I'd fractured my spine, and really I was out of action for some weeks after that. I spent time in hospital, and then came back to Korea for a short time where we engaged in more patrol activities, especially along the DMZ. Then my time was up in Korea, and I was hospitalized again, but over in Japan while I was in hospital, I was approached by the public relations officer. They wanted somebody to look after the office in Japan for a while, and they recruited me as a junior noncommissioned officer in the public relations office, where we were engaged in photography of Operation Glory, which was where the exchange of the dead occurred. We were receiving our dead, which had been buried in North Korean graves before the establishment of the static war lines on the Kansas Line on the 38th parallel. And also, we were working returning North Korea and Chinese dead at that time. I was engaged in the fringes of that, mainly working with a photographer that was taking photos of the Operation Glory activities. Some of them are still in the memorial at the present time, when our dead were coming back, and we were sending dead back over to North Korea. I left Japan in July 1955, so I was over there for almost 2 years, and I came back to Australia. Korea had finished with then. I was just due to go over to the mine action, the emergency which was occurring over there, but was found to be, because of my injuries, no longer suitable for the infantry or active service. I retired from the Army in 1957 under the care of our Department of Veteran's Affairs, who really have cared for me since I was 22 years old. I was re-educated through our Department of Veteran's Affairs, became an accountant with a university degree and worked with the public service for a further 25 years until my injuries caught up with me again at the age of 48 when I was retired from public work. Since then, I've had another career of volunteer work for the ex-service community, mainly in welfare and bereavements, and that's it. >> So can you tell us a little bit about how many veterans in Australia are still remaining? >> Sadly ... Can we stop for a moment? You asked me, Hannah, how many veterans are left in Australia. There were 17,850 served in Korea from 1950 until 1956. Now, as of October last year, there were less then 3,000 of us still alive. To be in fact, there was only 2,700. They're dying very quickly. At the present time, there would be no more than 2,400 of us left. Now, I can also give you some casualty figures of those that we lost. Those that paid the supreme sacrifice during their service in Korea was a total of 356 who lost their lives, 340 before the cease fire on July 1953, and 18 after the uneasy armistice that occurred on that date. Is there anything else that you would like? >> POWs, missing in action? >> Missing in action, we still have 42 that are missing in action, about half from pilots that were lost, mostly in the North. Only one that we haven't recovered in South Korea. The rest of the missing in action are Army personnel mostly in the DMZ, which nobody can find in any case, even to this day. We suspect that some of those pilots that were lost in the North could have gone back on recoveries that have occurred by the Americans. It's a possibility that they could have some of them in Hawaii. We're investigating this matter at the present time by organizing a memorandum of understanding with the American authorities. Those that were recovered, of course, are all in the Hawaii cemetery, the beautiful American cemetery in Hawaii. I think it's called the Punchbowl. Perhaps they could be, but it's very doubtful if any of the 22 Army personnel are there. They're mostly still in the demilitarized zone. There's thousands of Chinese still there, and Americans, many thousands of them, still missing. That's about all that we can say about the MIAs. Under the current regime in North Korea, I don't think we'll ever recover any more of those. Anyway, it's so long ago now, what, over 60 years. What's to recover? >> How about POWs? Australian POWs? >> POWs, there are very few of them alive now. I can't tell you the exact ... We had probably over 20, 25. Some of them died in captivity, three of them, to my mind. I don't know whether we have any still alive at the present time. I think there was about less than 30 we had POWs in Australia. What else? >> What do you think is significant about Australian contribution in the Korean War? >> What? >> Australia's contribution in the Korean War unlike other countries? For example, on top of my head, I could think of is the Australians contributed all the ... >> Well, for our size, we contributed quite a lot, especially ... You've heard some stories from two of our pilots, both from the Navy and from our own 77 Squadron, who flew there. Our Army contribution, of course, was three infantry battalions, which for our population at that time, 17,850 of us served, so for our small population of seven million was ... Our actions, of course, in the infantry we contributed to several major battles: the taking of Maryang-san, which during the static war was ... Although we took it in October 1951, it was lost shortly after, unfortunately, but Maryang-san was the main Chinese outpost on the Jamestown Line. That was a major battle. The Battle of Kapyong, of course. Australians and the Canadians held the line at Kapyong during the big Chinese offensive of 1951, in April 1951. The Australian battalion 3 RAR held the Chinese offensive during that time long enough, for 3 days, for them to establish the defenses around Seoul, which stopped the Northern advance. And then, of course, the static war period happened shortly after that in October 1951, where the war stayed until the armistice just about the 38th parallel. For a small force of 17,000, as I said, we lost almost 400 killed in action. Many of us were wounded and injured, like myself, I suppose. I was one of the injured. Anyway, that's about all I can say really. It was a long time ago. My main thoughts and feelings during the time that I served was heart rending. I was so sad to see the population starving, especially children, which upset me very much as a young man. All that I can say is my ... The sacrifice that the South Korea people paid was enormous, and they must be congratulated for how they've lifted themselves up after that disastrous time to such a prosperous country that it is today, and I'm very proud to be concerned with the recovery of Korea. They've done a wonderful job. That's about all. I can't think of anything else. I get bad thoughts when I think of what the people suffered. It was a terrible, terrible time for them. Terrible thing to see. We helped them as much as we could, of course, but we couldn't feed the whole population. Anyway, that's it.

>> Well, my name is Kevin Collin Joseph Berriman, commonly known as Col. I joined the Army on the 25th of October 1951, on my 17th birthday, as the Korea War was waging at that time. However, as I was underaged, at 17, you weren’t allowed to go into active service until you were 19. So therefore, the first 2 years of my Army life was spent waiting to go to Korea, in fact. I finally made it just after the Armistice when I went back for a second tour on the line. When we arrived, we did not have to put up with the shelling and the major fighting patrol activity, however, when I arrived my immediate thought was the sympathy for the people, and most of the populous was in starvation at that time. It was a terrible time for the South Korean people. When we arrived, there was still activity up on the DMZ. We established the demarcation zone, and our main activity at the time was patrolling inside the zone, which was allowed in those days. We patrolled one side, and the Chinese, who were still there, patrolled the other side, and we used to to wave to each other occasionally in the center. There was still activity with North Korea crossing the border on several occasions. Of course, we had to keep the whole area fortified, and I served there for approximately 12 months in that activity. There were several clashes on the border at that time, and I was injured during one of them where we had to chase some suspects. We chased them into a mine field. Well, we didn’t ever find out who they … I’ll have to stop. Anyway, we never got to catch the four that we were chasing. We saw them, nearly caught them, but they went into a mine field, and we stopped the chase, but sadly saw them … Well, we couldn’t interview them because there was nothing left of them to interview after that. During the chase, I sadly fell down a ravine, and I didn’t know it at the time, but I’d fractured my spine, and really I was out of action for some weeks after that. I spent time in hospital, and then came back to Korea for a short time where we engaged in more patrol activities, especially along the DMZ. Then my time was up in Korea, and I was hospitalized again, but over in Japan while I was in hospital, I was approached by the public relations officer. They wanted somebody to look after the office in Japan for a while, and they recruited me as a junior noncommissioned officer in the public relations office, where we were engaged in photography of Operation Glory, which was where the exchange of the dead occurred. We were receiving our dead, which had been buried in North Korean graves before the establishment of the static war lines on the Kansas Line on the 38th parallel. And also, we were working returning North Korea and Chinese dead at that time. I was engaged in the fringes of that, mainly working with a photographer that was taking photos of the Operation Glory activities. Some of them are still in the memorial at the present time, when our dead were coming back, and we were sending dead back over to North Korea. I left Japan in July 1955, so I was over there for almost 2 years, and I came back to Australia. Korea had finished with then. I was just due to go over to the mine action, the emergency which was occurring over there, but was found to be, because of my injuries, no longer suitable for the infantry or active service. I retired from the Army in 1957 under the care of our Department of Veteran’s Affairs, who really have cared for me since I was 22 years old. I was re-educated through our Department of Veteran’s Affairs, became an accountant with a university degree and worked with the public service for a further 25 years until my injuries caught up with me again at the age of 48 when I was retired from public work. Since then, I’ve had another career of volunteer work for the ex-service community, mainly in welfare and bereavements, and that’s it.

>> So can you tell us a little bit about how many veterans in Australia are still remaining?

>> Sadly … Can we stop for a moment? You asked me, Hannah, how many veterans are left in Australia. There were 17,850 served in Korea from 1950 until 1956. Now, as of October last year, there were less then 3,000 of us still alive. To be in fact, there was only 2,700. They’re dying very quickly. At the present time, there would be no more than 2,400 of us left. Now, I can also give you some casualty figures of those that we lost. Those that paid the supreme sacrifice during their service in Korea was a total of 356 who lost their lives, 340 before the cease fire on July 1953, and 18 after the uneasy armistice that occurred on that date. Is there anything else that you would like?

>> POWs, missing in action?

>> Missing in action, we still have 42 that are missing in action, about half from pilots that were lost, mostly in the North. Only one that we haven’t recovered in South Korea. The rest of the missing in action are Army personnel mostly in the DMZ, which nobody can find in any case, even to this day. We suspect that some of those pilots that were lost in the North could have gone back on recoveries that have occurred by the Americans. It’s a possibility that they could have some of them in Hawaii. We’re investigating this matter at the present time by organizing a memorandum of understanding with the American authorities. Those that were recovered, of course, are all in the Hawaii cemetery, the beautiful American cemetery in Hawaii. I think it’s called the Punchbowl. Perhaps they could be, but it’s very doubtful if any of the 22 Army personnel are there. They’re mostly still in the demilitarized zone. There’s thousands of Chinese still there, and Americans, many thousands of them, still missing. That’s about all that we can say about the MIAs. Under the current regime in North Korea, I don’t think we’ll ever recover any more of those. Anyway, it’s so long ago now, what, over 60 years. What’s to recover?

>> How about POWs? Australian POWs?

>> POWs, there are very few of them alive now. I can’t tell you the exact … We had probably over 20, 25. Some of them died in captivity, three of them, to my mind. I don’t know whether we have any still alive at the present time. I think there was about less than 30 we had POWs in Australia. What else?

>> What do you think is significant about Australian contribution in the Korean War?

>> What?

>> Australia’s contribution in the Korean War unlike other countries? For example, on top of my head, I could think of is the Australians contributed all the …

>> Well, for our size, we contributed quite a lot, especially … You’ve heard some stories from two of our pilots, both from the Navy and from our own 77 Squadron, who flew there. Our Army contribution, of course, was three infantry battalions, which for our population at that time, 17,850 of us served, so for our small population of seven million was … Our actions, of course, in the infantry we contributed to several major battles: the taking of Maryang-san, which during the static war was … Although we took it in October 1951, it was lost shortly after, unfortunately, but Maryang-san was the main Chinese outpost on the Jamestown Line. That was a major battle. The Battle of Kapyong, of course. Australians and the Canadians held the line at Kapyong during the big Chinese offensive of 1951, in April 1951. The Australian battalion 3 RAR held the Chinese offensive during that time long enough, for 3 days, for them to establish the defenses around Seoul, which stopped the Northern advance. And then, of course, the static war period happened shortly after that in October 1951, where the war stayed until the armistice just about the 38th parallel. For a small force of 17,000, as I said, we lost almost 400 killed in action. Many of us were wounded and injured, like myself, I suppose. I was one of the injured. Anyway, that’s about all I can say really. It was a long time ago. My main thoughts and feelings during the time that I served was heart rending. I was so sad to see the population starving, especially children, which upset me very much as a young man. All that I can say is my … The sacrifice that the South Korea people paid was enormous, and they must be congratulated for how they’ve lifted themselves up after that disastrous time to such a prosperous country that it is today, and I’m very proud to be concerned with the recovery of Korea. They’ve done a wonderful job. That’s about all. I can’t think of anything else. I get bad thoughts when I think of what the people suffered. It was a terrible, terrible time for them. Terrible thing to see. We helped them as much as we could, of course, but we couldn’t feed the whole population. Anyway, that’s it.

>> It’s amazing now, isn’t it?

>> I am Milton Cottee, retired from the Air Force. I’m 90 years old, and I did my flying training in 1948 and ’49, after World War II. I was married during World War II, and that is significant to something I’ll say a bit later. After I completed my flying training, I was posted up to the British Commonwealth Occupation Forces in Japan to a place called Iwakuni where our squadron, No. 77, was based, and that posting was to have been for 6 months. Towards the end of 6 months, I decided to bring my bride up to Japan, and she arrived on the 28th of July, 1950. Sorry, 28th of … well, 2, 3 days before the war started, which was, yeah, June, June, yeah, June. Anyway, so I had my wife with me, and she shared all of my experiences during the Korean War. On the 25th of June when the war started, our squadron was put on immediate standby about 4 hours later because we were part of the United Nations’ battle group, and we were asked to go on standby. We armed our aircraft and got them ready for war. However, our government’s approval was necessary before we could get involved in the war, and that took 2 weeks, 2 weeks where we were waiting and learning as much as we could about where Korea was, and how could we get there and what was happening, so we were all apprehensive as to what was to happen. On the 2nd of July, asleep in a married quarter on the base of Iwakuni, a phone call woke me up at about 2 o’clock in the morning, and a voice said, “Milt, our government has approved us to go to war. There will be a jeep around to pick you up in 1/2 hour. You’re off on the first mission. All you need is your flying suit,” so I had to get up and leave my wife behind and go to war. It was the first time that I’d flown a Mustang at night, which was quite an experience, and our mission was to give top cover, top fighter cover, to DC-3 aircraft or Dakota aircraft that were evacuating civilians from Taejon in the middle of Korea. We flew across the sea towards Korea, and we normally flew a section of four aircraft. Very rarely did we fly any fewer than four aircraft in one section. One aircraft had to turn back with radio trouble, so that left three of us on the mission. We were fueled up with fuel in every conceivable tank, and our aircraft were consequently unstable. We had full guns at 2,500 rounds of .5 ammunition in the six guns, and we were ready for air-to-air combat. I had had very little training as a fighter pilot in that role and was wondering how I was going to manage. As we approached the coast of Korea, one of the members, number three, surged forward, and we wondered where he was going because we were normally in a formation, and the leader called up and said, “Where are you going, Tom?” And then the penny dropped. He wanted to be first into Korea, and he was. We chased him, but we couldn’t catch him before he crossed the coast. Anyway, it wasn’t a very successful mission. We found an airfield which we thought was the right one, circled around it for a long while and then went back home to Japan. My third mission was very eventful. We checked in with a control center and were given coordinates to go to, which was to a little place called Pyeongtaek just south of Seoul, and that’s where the bomb line was. That’s where the enemy had advanced to at this stage, and there was an airborne forward air controller giving us directions as to what to do, but we contacted him by radio, and we were about 10 miles away from him when he suddenly called up and said, “Little friends, little friends, come, hubba-hubba. I’m being attacked.” Now little friends is a name for Mustangs which derived out of World War II because they were escorting bombers into Germany, and the bomber crews called them little friends, and hubba, hubba is come quickly, so it was a funny mix of language that we heard on the radio. I was the first to see the other aircraft that was supposedly unfriendly, and I thought, “Well, I’ll have to shoot him down.” He was much lower than I was, and I chased him, and I was just about to fire with a no-deflection shot, which would’ve … couldn’t have missed him when he yawed out to one side, and I saw South Korean markings on the side, and I refrained from shooting and pulled up thinking that maybe it was a North Korean in South Korean markings, so I didn’t want him to have the opportunity to shoot at me, so I pulled way up above him and looked down while I was upside down and eventually determined that it was a South Korean aircraft that had come out of the sun to have a look at the airborne forward air controller. Now, back to the forward air controller, who had as targets or had had as a target a little bridge over a little river near Pyeongtaek, which he wanted to us to knock down. Now the armaments we had were just 3-inch rockets with 60-pound explosive heads, and we thought that they would be rather ineffective against a bridge. Nevertheless, as we started attacking the bridge, tanks were coming down the highway, and they were firing at us, so I diverted away from one attack to fire at the tanks, and at that stage, we hadn’t worked out that the best way to hit a tank was from the rear, and I was firing at them from the front. Anyway, it stopped the tanks from progressing down the highway, and then we tried to knock the bridge down, expending all our ammunition, and then we didn’t have enough fuel to get back to our base in Japan, so the forward air controller said, “Well, you can come back to my airfield at Taejon,” and we followed him, and it was late in the even and getting dark, and by the time we landed at this little airfield at Taejon, it was crowded with aircraft of all types, and we had hardly a place to park our aircraft, and here we were, three Australians in funny-looking flying suits which had been made Japan. They were actually white at the time, and we were carrying around a Mae West and a .38 revolver, and we were trying to get a message back to our base at Iwakuni in Japan. We found a communicator who wouldn’t take our message so … because of higher priority traffic at the time. We could hear artillery in the distance, and we wondered whether we would be overrun in during the night. We found a place to sleep in an empty house, and the next day, we foraged around for something to eat. The Americans on the base didn’t know that Australia had entered the war, so they were trying to get us to do things that we didn’t want to do. Anyway, we didn’t … We had to get some fuel, so we found an airman with a fuel tanker, and he didn’t want to give us any fuel because of the shortage of fuel, and I traded my revolver for a tank of fuel, and that was the way we got back home. Anyway, because of that, the leader that I had normally flown with had flown on another mission with someone else, and he was our first casualty, and if it hadn’t been for the fact that we had been delayed from getting back to our base that night … He launched the next day, before we got back to the base, and he was our first casualty. He flew into the target and was killed. That upset us to no end, and shortly after that, we lost our commanding officer, and we then progressively lost more and more people. We lost something like 41 pilots and many more aircraft. The missions that I flew early in the war were hectic because the enemy was advancing regardless of what we were doing. We were trying to stop them all the time, and when they got down as far as the Nakdong River, General MacArthur, the overall commander, said, “Hold the river. Don’t let them cross the river,” and we fought valiantly to help troops on the ground, who were on one side of the river and enemy on the other side. I found a bridge across the Nakdong River at a place called Chilgok, and I had two 500-pound bombs, and I thought, “Well, maybe they will want to cross the bridge, so I’ll knock it down.” I tried to hit the bridge with my two bombs, and I missed fortunately because several days later a message came down from General MacArthur’s headquarters saying, “That bridge is off-limits because we want to take an offensive shortly, and we want to cross the river on that bridge.” Anyway, that bridge is still standing even though a new bridge has been built beside it at Chilgok now. Now I have been back to Korea a couple of times since the war, and the battle of the Nakdong River is quite a classic. We were able to hold it. A funny incident occurred while we were doing that. We were flying from a place called Taegu, which is now called Daegu, and it was a very active airfield, and we would fly across from Iwakuni in Japan with a load of weaponry and deliver it and then refuel and rearm at Daegu, and one of our targets given to us out of Daegu was a railway tunnel in which North Koreans were putting supplies and men to hide during the day, and we were to knock down the entrance to the tunnel. We had rockets, and to get rockets onto the tunnel mouth, we had to fly very low along the railway line approaching the tunnel, bearing in mind that there was a hill to go up and over when we fired off our rockets, and after a while, we were getting out the odd rocket down the tunnel, and every time a rocket went down the tunnel and went off inside the tunnel, there would be a huge smoke ring come back out of the tunnel, and this amused us very much, and from then on, it was a competition to see who could blow the best smoke ring. And of course we were very effective in knocking out whatever was stored in the tunnel. We knocked down bridges. We knocked down gunning placements. We strafed dug-in troops. We had no rules of engagement actually. I wasn’t aware of any rules of engagement. We made up our mind as we went along. In wars these days, you have rules of engagement. You can hit this, or you can’t hit that, that sort of thing. I feel very sorry for many of the citizens of South Korea because often we would be tasked to fire at people on the ground that had enemy mixed in with the local population, and that leaves me very sad that we had to do that. In fact, I’m emotional about that. Anyway, all of this time, my wife was back in Iwakuni in Japan, and later in the year, later in 1950, we moved across to Korea to a place called Pohang, and it was a bare concrete strip with no facilities at all, and we lived in tents. And it was a very frugal existence, and we were resupplied by a transport aircraft coming out of Japan, and I can remember on one sortie out of Pohang where we went up as far as occupied Seoul and the airfield there at Gimpo, and I dropped two bombs on the main runway at Gimpo, and one of those bombs hit the runway and made a big crater. About a week later, the landing at Incheon had occurred, and Gimpo had been retaken, and we flew into Gimpo at night to support a paradrop operation that was being launched at Sunchon and Sukchon, the biggest paratroop operation in the world, I understand. Anyway, this was to cut off enemy troops from … that were trying to retreat towards the north, and I can remember running over a rough patch on the runway, and I thought to myself, “Well, they filled in my bomb crater, and I’ve just run over it.” We spent the night in a bombed-out terminal building at Gimpo. It was absolutely destroyed, and it was the only cover we had and the only place we could spend the night, and the next morning, we supported this big paratroop drop at Sukchon and Sunchon, flying in amongst the paratroopers as they dropped down and giving them support. Now after I’d flown 50 missions, which was towards the end of 1950, I was posted back to Australia and went back to Australia with my wife on a ship out of Kure on what I call Hell Ship Changti, and I have been back to Korea several times, and I’m amazed at the reconstruction of the country. We left it with hardly a building standing anywhere. Anything that stood up was knocked down, and now to go back and see the advances South Korea has made is quite incredible. And a group of us were fated at a ceremony at Chilgok, which was played on TV live, and we were on a stage with garlands of flowers around our necks and hailed as heroes, which was rather … forgotten the word. It was a little unusual for us to be called heroes. Anyway, everywhere we went in Korea, we were hailed as heroes, but I don’t think we deserved that. Anyway, in front of us on this stage, in front of a vast number of people on the side of the river, the Nakdong River there, there was a row of little tables, and on the tables were what we thought were little gift boxes, and we were asked to approach these tables after a while, and in each of these little boxes was some soft clay, and we were asked to make a handprint. We put our hands down on the clay and pushed it into the clay, and when we took our hands away, there was a handprint. Now these were to be the first exhibit in what was to be called the Peace Museum along the Nakdong River, and I’m rather keen to hear whether that museum has progressed and how finalized it is. I would love to go back and see it. Since then, I have had a very unusual Air Force career, becoming a test pilot, flew with the RAF on flight tests of their V bombers and then came back to Australia as chief test pilot for our own Air Force and actually took part in a top-gun competition that squadrons were entered into each year, and two of us became top guns for a year, and I blamed the Korean War for that because we ended up being able to fly very accurately to be able to aim accurately and feel what the aircraft was doing very precisely. I would like to add that my younger brother, name of Keith, Keith Cottee, thought that, “If Milt can do it, so can I,” so he joined the Air Force, and he was trained on No. 6 postwar flying training course. He was posted to Gimpo and flew Meteors out of Gimpo, so two brothers flew in the Korean War. Okay.

>> …threat. I’m Norman Lee. You want to know when I was first in Korea, October 1951, flying from an aircraft carrier from the Royal Australian Navy, flying Firefly aircraft. Our task was interdiction, which meant we had to keep all the roads closed, and our weaponry was bombs, so we did a lot of bombing of bridges, et cetera. Interestingly enough, we found that you can bomb a bridge, straddle it, and the bridge is not damaged. Am I going into too much technical detail here?

>> No.

>> No. So we decided to do low-level bombing with delay fuses, a 27 delay between the bomb hitting the ground and exploding, four aircraft. Me, the last aircraft in, I had to get in within 27 seconds. Obviously I did because I’m still here. Interesting things, we operated out of Guri, the carrier, out of Guri and Sasebo. We alternated between the two. We were on patrol for 10 days in the Yellow Sea. We alternated with American aircraft carriers. We were there for 5 months.

We relieved a Royal Navy aircraft carrier, and it came back and relieved us. It went down to Australia to be refitted. Highlights? I remember taking a group to Iwakuni to do a test flight on an aircraft, and on the way back, we were still in uniform because it was still wartime. We stopped at a Russia bar, and it was still dead flat, and we wandered around. We were looking for somebody to get something to eat like today, and we came across what we thought was an eating place, and we walked in, and obviously we weren’t very welcome, and it turned out that it was a private place, and then they realized we’d made a mistake, and then they welcomed us. They took us out the back, sat us down, and we had a cow sukiyaki as they called it, lots of acai beer, and then they put us onto the train back to Guri so good fun. Highlights? We went through a terrific typhoon, Typhoon Ruth. We lost aircraft off the flight deck because of the weather. The flight deck is 44 feet above the water level, and we lost a tractor off the front of the island and a boat from behind the island, so you can see how the waves at 44 feet were [INAUDIBLE]. The ship rolled 35 degrees, which is a lot of rolling in an aircraft carrier. What else can I tell you? Ask me a question.

>> Do you remember seeing some of the civilians?

>> Oh, yes, Korean. Interesting, I took the mail from the ship into Gimpo, and as a result, I went into Seoul. In Seoul, there wasn’t a building standing that didn’t have a hole in it, and the only bridge was in the river, in the Han. And when I went back about 15 years ago, multistory buildings and, what, 17 bridges across the Han now, very prosperous country. Two of my course mates were shot down during the Korean War. They both survived, very interesting. We lost 10 aircrafts, shot down. We lost three pilots killed. We incurred 90 instances of damage to aircraft in the aircraft fire. Anyway, when it came time to come home we did. We arrived in Australia and as if we had never been away. There was no … not like Vietnam where there was lots of anti. It was just the flow. We’d never been away, and we went straight into peacetime routine, and that was that. What more can I tell you?

>> So …

>> I’ll tell you a little interesting story.

>> Mm-hmm.

>> We had destroyers and frigates, surface ships, operating all the time, and you would have seen pictures of the Thames in London. There’s a cruiser sitting in the Thames, HMS Belfast and Tobruk. Tobruk was an Australian destroyer, and Belfast was a Royal Navy cruiser. We were on the east coast doing shore bombardment where the pilot directs the fall of shot from the ships. All right? Are you still with me?

>> Mm-hmm.

>> Good. Stay with me. Anyway, exchange of call signs between the ship and myself. Went ahead shooting. I made corrections to their fall of shot, and there was a problem. The ship had to come closer. Something was awfully wrong, and it turned out I was correcting the shot from the destroyer on the cruiser’s fall of shot.

>> Mm.

>> White phosphorus, Willy Peter, does this make sense to you?

>> Yes.

>> Anyway, about a year later on back in Australia, we had the Navy officers out to lunch, and their gunning officer said, “You’re an aviator,” and he said, “I’ve met the biggest idiot aviator in Korea.” That was me. Good story.

>> Did you tell him it was you?

>> Now, during the talks, truce talks, we were on the east coast at Hungnam, which is on down the east side. We normally operated on the west side. And the word went round the truce talks were almost going to happen, and we were given a code word, and the code word was Brandywine. And if we heard the code word … We were flying. Heard the code word Brandywine, stop bombing, rocketing, whatever you were doing because the truce had been declared. And the joke went around the squadron that if you had just dropped a bomb, you’d better duck down and grab it before it hit the ground. Joke. We need to worry because it was, what, 18 months, almost 2 years before we finally had a truce. Yeah. Now my reaction to being there? I could remember one time forming up, flying back from a bombing mission on my leader, and I suddenly had a thought, “What am I doing here 10,000 miles away from home bombing these people?” And that was it. I mean, anytime I ever thought about it … When you’re 21, it doesn’t matter, does it?

>> So have you thought about that question now?

>> No, doesn’t worry me.

>> Well, I’m glad you made it home safe.

>> I did, didn’t I? Obviously.

>> And you stayed in the service for a long time until you retired as a commodore.

>> Yeah, 33 years. I had commanded three ships …

>> Mm.

>> … which is good. So I was both an aviator and a seaman officer.

>> Since you were with the Navy for a very long time, what do you think the significance of Australia’s Navy was in Korea?

>> Then?

>> Mm-hmm.

>> Not that great really, the surface ships, I mean. The carrier, yes. We certainly … We did as good as what the Americans and everybody else was doing, including 77 Squadron. But the surface ships, all they could really do is gunfire ashore. It wasn’t a great effort. Well, I better clarify that. They were there from the beginning until the end. We rotated ships through in support as you would do, and some of them were pretty heavily involved, but not like the second World War.

>> Of course. The Second World War was a little different.

>> That’s a little different.

>> And so many more died, and it was …

>> Yeah.

>> It was a little more grander in scale, but it is true that the Korean War was a united effort of more different people from different continents, and I would think that Australians, coming from Oceania, as you said, 10,000 miles away and yet still participating in this war, you may have wondered why. But if you look back, it was really … You defended the freedom of South Korea.

>> Well, I think, looking back on it, we very much recognized the United Nations concept, and if the United Nations said we’ve got to go to war, we went to war, and it really was as simple as that. That’s my opinion. What do you think?

>> Yeah, I became very sympathetic to the South Koreans.

>> Yeah.

>> We’ll do his shortly, but yeah. I mean …

>> Since then, Australia has been involved in wars it should not have been involved in, right?

>> Mm-hmm.

>> The Korean War was a legitimate action. There’s no question about that to me.

>> Well, it stopped the threat of communism all over in that region.

>> So they say, and we’re led to believe.

>> You can tell for sure. I mean, there’s a stark difference between North and South Korea. You know what you fought for. It’s one country, I mean, one people, but the Allied helped South Korea and took down North Korea. I hope that you’re very proud.

>> Well, yeah. I’ve accepted that’s what we should have been doing, and that’s what we did, and you’re right. I’ll tell you a final funny. Do you want to hear a final funny?

>> Yes.

>> On the flight deck of the carrier, having started the aircraft, I couldn’t get my gun sight to work. No gun sight, and I fiddle with it, and I change the bulbs in it, and still no gun sight. And off I went, and we came across some Chinese, and all I could do was sort of point and spray, right? Right back on board the carrier, and I was sitting in a little cafe behind the island with my air group commander, the boss. There was a knock on the door, and a petty officer came in and said, “[INAUDIBLE] Lee, we’ve found out what’s wrong with your gun sight,” and I said, “Oh, good, what? Bad maintenance?” “No, no, no, no, sir. The brilliance was turned right down.” Good story? Naughty, naughty it was, too.

[ Chatter ]

>> My name is Brigadier Colin Kahn, retired, of course, and I served in Korea in 1952 as a lieutenant platoon commander of an infantry rifle platoon, but before I say a few more words about the army, let me explain a little bit about this memorial, which I was on the planning committee, which we helped build when it was completed in the year 2000. This memorial is located in in our avenue of memorial called Anzac Parade. Anzac Parade runs from in between two major buildings in Canberra. The Australian War Memorial at the far end of the parade where veterans of all wars are honored, particularly on Anzac Day on the 25th of April. The other building it joins with is our Parliament House down on the right-hand end, and Parliament House looks up Anzac Parade and right to the War Memorial. We hope that the politicians will see a little bit looking at these memorials of what decisions they made and what some of the consequences of sending out troops and people to war.

Anzac Parade is our parade, I say, of memorials, and all people, veterans and relatives of past wars like the Boer War, World War I. Most of the veterans are all dead, of course, but their relatives walk and march here, and they go up Anzac Parade to the Boer War Memorial where a service is held on the 25th of April every year. Now the memorial itself, I say, was finished in the year 2000, and the money to build it was given by the Australian government, by the South Korean government, by all our Korean and returned servicemen organizations around Australia. It took some time to build, and we had our committee navy, army and air force, and I represented the army, and women and widows of people, of soldiers who had died. It consists of out on the front an obelisk, an obelisk which is dedicated to all those who are buried without a known grave, and we have some of those. There’s an inscription on that obelisk which comes from the war cemetery in Busan, and put that inscription on the obelisk. Now the obelisk itself then leads onto a walkway, which runs up to the main memorial itself inside the memorial, which we call a contemplative space, it is where people can come and lay wreaths and where, on special days, units will come and lay wreaths and bring visitors to wreath and see what Australia’s part was in that war. On the outside of the memorial, we have listed all the 21 countries that assisted South Korea during the war, and three badges of the Australian Army, Navy and Air Force and the badge of the British Commonwealth Division. We in the army served under the auspices of the British Commonwealth Division. Also, you can see on the scroll there all the nations that served in the war. Outside in the space out here, you will see there are three statues: one of a soldier over here, one of a sailor and one of an airman. That represents our three combat services who served in Korea. Beyond that, probably note there are no symbols to nurses here, but the Nurses Memorial is directly opposite us on the other side of the road, but they’re not here. Now these statues here are interspersed, or covering them are a series of stainless-steel poles. Some people think they represent all the dead, and, yeah, we had 250-odd killed in South Korea, but they are just indicative of it. The other thing the poles do is give us an indication of the starkness of the cold which we soldiers in particular remember of some aspects of the terrain in Korea, and they cast long, gray, cold shadows in wintertime, and that really reminds us of Korea. Also, there are some boulders, and I’m sitting on one here. They were donated by the Korean government, and they were flown back from Korea from the area around Kapyong, where we had a major battle, and placed here. Now this particular memorial, I say, is used on Anzac Day, but also units come here and have their own specific parades, army, navy and air force, and then march up Anzac Parade towards the main memorial, which is dedicated to all Australians who fought in all wars in which Australia has participated. All right? Now let me give you a little bit about the army. Know we had 17,000 Australians who fought in South Korea during the war from ’50 to ’53. There were over 200 and almost 250 killed, 1,300 almost wounded, many seriously with limbs blown off and things like that. We had four taken prisoner, and a number are still buried in graves that are unknown. As I said earlier, the majority of our dead are buried in the Korean cemetery in Busan. Now the army had three battalions that served in Korea. I served in the 1st Battalion, and, you know, you can pick up all the detail of what those battalions did. There were two phases to our war. There was what we call the mobile phase when one battalion, which came over from the occupation force in Japan, participated from October 1950, at almost the beginning of the war, and it fought all its way up the peninsula, the Chinese border, and then withdraw back again when China came into the war and helped established our peace line just north of Seoul. Two other battalions we said came in the later 2 years of the war, and I belonged to one of those, and I fought in what was called the static phase. The static phase of the war is with the war patrolling where every night and during the day sometimes, we would send our fighting patrols to attack the enemy. We’d send out ambush patrols to ambush the energy, reconnaissance patrols to recognize or hear his positions because we were located on opposite sides of the valley, the Samichon Valley. The Chinese and North Korean positions were on one side, and our positions were on this side, and we had to find out what was going on, on the other side, so we’d send patrols in to find out. This patrolling activity got particularly intense in October, November 1952, and with my battalion, which was called the 1st Battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment, we had a big hill in the middle of our area called Hill 355 or Maryang-san. It was vital ground. Vital ground means if the enemy captured it, they could almost control what’s going on all around it. One of the United Nations battalions, not an Australian battalion, was attacked very heavily up on this particular hill and almost overrun, so my battalion was sent up the next day to reoccupy the position and try to regain the initiative in the patrol battle. My platoon of 30 men, we were given the forward platoon, close to the enemy positions, and we had an intensive patrolling program where every night, we would send out half of my platoon. My platoon sergeant might take it out from last light until midnight, and then I would take the rest of the platoon from midnight until dawn, and we’d either have fighting patrols or ambush patrols to try and get the enemy as he was coming across to our positions because the name of the game was to control no-man’s-land, and this is why this position was overrun before we got there. The battalion that was there before we arrived did not patrol actively, and the enemy, the Chinese, came across no-man’s-land and dug tunnels at the base of this big hill, 355, and infiltrated soldiers across over several nights, and they occupied this position at the base of one of our positions, and they weren’t interrupted, which means that whoever was on our side wasn’t patrolling actively enough. They all should have been picked up and destroyed long before this, so when they decided to attack the hill, they were already on the hill, and our artillery and mortars had no effect on them, so they did overrun several of the positions. Anyway, a lot of the positions on this hill were destroyed, and we were sent up to reoccupy and take it over, and this is when we did all this active patrolling. Now let me tell you a story about one particular patrol, which I always remember, was a patrol which occurred that I was leading on November the 11th, 1952. I remember November the 11tth because it was Armistice Day, not for Korea, but it was Armistice Day for World War I. My platoon was under heavy artillery and shell bombardment all through the night, and we were supposed to leave at midnight, but we couldn’t get out of the position because there were too many shells falling, and we couldn’t expose ourselves out of the trenches. I managed to get the platoon out sometime after midnight, and we started to go down the hill as a fighting patrol to start to see if there are any enemies still on our hill. Halfway down the hill, we ran into an enemy ambush.

The enemy opened fire, and I was hit with a machine-gun through the chest, and I had three bullets which went through my chest. Then they threw hand grenades, and fortunately I was wearing a United States armored-proof vest, and that stopped all the grenade shrapnel, but you might ask, why didn’t it stop the bullets? Well, the bullets happened to go through the vest, the zipper, which was in the middle of the jacket, and these three bullets went through the middle of the zipper and caused all my casualties. I must say. The next morning, when I was in an American MASH hospital, American scientists visited the hospital and said, spoke to me about my action, and they decided then they had to change the design of the armored-proof vest, of the armored vest from having a zip down the middle. They put the zip under the arm, and I said, “That’s a good idea. I wish I had have had it.” Anyway, I had an interesting experience when I was shot, and it was, you know, severe wounding. I had an experience where I left my body and went up into the sky, and I was in no pain.

I could look down on the battle that was taking place with my soldiers and the Chinese soldiers on the ground, and I could see this battle taking place that I was divorced from because I was in the sky, and I suddenly realized that if I didn’t do something, I might die altogether because I shouldn’t be doing this. I should be in pain on the ground, so I forced myself to come back to the ground, and I did. I managed to come back onto the ground, and after that, my own stretcher-bearers got me and took me back to my lines, so that was my experience with an out-of-body, out-of-life experience, which I’ve had in South Korea. Now my evacuation also shows what happened in Korea.

When I was wounded in this no-man’s-land area, I was carried back to the Australian aid post in our battalion by Australian stretcher-bearers. One of those stretcher-bearers happened to be a man named Keith Payne, who eventually won a Victoria Cross, our highest award for valor. However, at my battalion aid post, I was then picked up by an Indian field-ambulance, which drove me to a clearing station. Then it was another Norwegian base picked me up there and took me to American MASH, and the MASH was 8055 MASH, which is the one you see on television every night. It was all taken at the MASH I was in. After I was treated in the MASH for several weeks, I was then taken by a bridge hospital train down to Seoul into a British hospital, then flown by an Australian medical aircraft across …

>> Good morning, or good evening, Hannah. My name is Ian Crawford. I am a retired rear admiral in the Royal Australian Navy. I served in Korea in 1950 and '51. At that time when I first arrived there, I was an 18-year-old midshipman serving in the Royal Navy light cruiser HMAS Shoalhaven. We were intended to be the flagship of the East Indies Station based in Trincomalee in Sri Lanka, but when the Korean War broke out, the British had to withdraw a cruiser from the Far East, and we were very quickly prepared to go to Korea. On our way there, we were diverted to Hong Kong to pick up the 1st Battalion, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, who, together with the Middlesex Regiment, who were carried in the HMS Unicorn and, were the first British troops and the first non-American and Korean troops in the Korean War. They were to form the 27th Brigade, and the Australian Army, 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, joined later in September to form this brigade. After delivering the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders to Pusan, and at that time, Pusan Perimeter was at its smallest, we landed the Argylls and the Middlesex Regiment from the HMS Unicorn, and we went about our naval duties. Very soon after that in September, we were part of the cover force for the landing at Inchon. We were escorting the British carrier, HMAS Triumph. Two Australian destroyers were with us, HMAS Warramunga and HMAS Bataan, and they stayed with us for most of our time on the west coast. The British, various fleets, together with the Commonwealth navies, formed the West Coast Task Group. On one occasion, we were transferred to the East Coast, and we went as far north as Chongjin, which is 2 miles from the Russian border. That was as far north as you could get in Korea, and we bombarded there. By October, there was the general feeling ... The forces, after being released from the Perimeter in Pusan, went up to the peninsula and across the 38th parallel, and the feeling was the Korean War was over. So the British withdrew to Hong Kong but not us because we were from the East Indies. We had no families in Hong Kong, so we stayed there, and we were just starting a refit in Kure in Japan when the news came through that the Chinese had entered the war, and they were making fast progress down the peninsula. We were quickly put together and diverted to the Taedong River, which is in North Korea, which is the entrance to the river that leads to Chinnamp'o, which is the port for Pyongyang, so we were diverted there in the belief that we were going to have to evacuate large segments of the Army and a lot of civilians. In the event that we evacuated a lot of civilians, we in a light cruiser could not get up the river, the Taedong River. It was very narrow, badly chartered and the sandbanks were not evident. So there were three Canadian destroyers, two Australian destroyers and one American destroyer. One Australian destroyer went aground, one Canadian destroyer got a wire around its propeller, so eventually only two Canadian destroyers, one Australian destroyer and one American destroyer got up to Chinnamp'o. Supervised the evacuation, and the evacuees came down in the ships and in separate pairs, and then they destroyed the Port of Chinnamp'o. Our main operating base when we were on the west coast was an island called Daecheongdo, which our captain used as a base, and everybody followed his example. It became a place where we convened to meet with South Korean guerrillas and exchange information, where our smaller ships took shelter in bad weather while we made our forays up the Gulf of Korea very close to the border with China. The Chinese and North Korean advance continued. We were in Inchon, and it became evident that Inchon was going to be uncovered, and so all the American stores had to be destroyed, and our ship was the last ship out of Inchon. We continued to go into Inchon, moving from position to position so that people would not fix us for counter-bombardment from batteries ashore, and we at times came under fire from these batteries, and eventually, we were 20 miles behind the front line, so we had to leave the port. The great problem was the extreme cold. It was the coldest winter of the century. It was so cold that our close-range weapons, pom-poms, Oerlikons that we had to move the mounting every 15 minutes. Otherwise, the lubricating oil would freeze. And at sea, when the spray came over the bow and hit the superstructure of the ship, it turned into ice, so it was cold. We stayed on patrol for a long time. I think we spent more time on patrol than any other ship. At one stage, we had patrolled 43 days. So the important thing was to keep the sailors entertained, to make sure they got their mail, and we provided our own entertainment. I know for sure, Roseanne, Bob Hope and a lot of Hollywood people came out and did sing to the soldiers. That wasn't available to us. We had to provide our own entertainment, which we did, and it was a great success. The other thing was the feeling we had because everyone thought the war was over, and everybody had gone south to Hong Kong, and we were quickly pushed into the breach. We felt very lonely. We could feel the malevolent omnipotence of China bearing down on us, and morale was very, very low. There came a message from families, from Littleton from families in England because I was the only Australian in the ship. All the others were British. We'd be mentioned in the news, and we were going to get a medal. Now, that amounted to recognition, and one of the most important features for any serviceman, for his morale, is recognition, and this medal was awarded, and I always maintained that recognition is important for morale while serving and for the peace of mind of veterans in their older age, and this has been a principle that has guided for a lot of my time since the Korean War and the various studies that I've done. I've been involved in many studies. The Australian government has been very proactive in trying to determine the problems of the Korean War veterans, and they carried out three studies, health studies, cancer incidence studies, to find out why there was such a large number of Korean War veterans dying early. We had the very comprehensive studies, which at one stage was made available to all other members of a committee that I was working on in Korea for their information. I have been asked by the government to do other studies. We had quite a lot of Australians serving in Korea for the 5 years after 1953, and it was called the post-Armistice period. I was cochairman of that committee, which once again, was motivated by the need to recognize the service of these people after the Korean War because we had people who died there. We had 18 people die during this post-Armistice period. Once again, the recognition of these people and the service of these people was so important. And I'm still involved. We have 43 missing in action. Some will be in the demilitarized zone. Some will be in North Korea still. Many will have been recovered, and we are trying to develop a process where ... And those who were recovered who were Caucasoid will probably be in Hawaii where the Americans take all their casualties, all their dead from all wars who have not been identified, and there is a process using DNA and dental records, and we are trying to progress more actively on the part of our government to identify these people. Also, I started the program for an Australian National Korean War Memorial. It became a big hobby of mine. At that time when I was thinking about it, we had one memorial on top of Anzac Parade, which is called the Australian War Memorial, and as far as I was concerned, that was the memorial for all wars, but because the Vietnam war was so politically sensitive, the government decided to give the Vietnam people their own war memorial. As soon as that happened, I said, "Okay, they've got their memorial. We have to have our memorial." So I gathered together some colleagues, and they suggested others, and we went through the process of raising the funds, getting the government's agreement to give us a site on Anzac Parade for the memorial, to do a design brief of what we wanted to be put out to a design competition for a sculptor and an architect to design our memorial, and then eventually, to supervise the construction and then the dedication of the memorial in 2003. The design was interesting. I knew that the sailors, soldiers and airmen wanted figures that they could identify with, but the winning design didn't incorporate any figures at all, and all my colleagues said, "That's the winning design," and I was the chairman, and I said, "I don't want it unless we have figures." And the architect and sculptor was flexible enough, and he said, "Well, I think we can remove some of the poles," which he had put into the design, "and make space for the figures." And we had three figures: a sailor, a soldier and an airman in their winter garb. He had some misgivings initially, but on the day before the dedication of the memorial, and it was all there, and it was a grand style, he came up to me and said, "It works." We were very happy about that. We had another problem. The National Capital Authority didn't like the obelisk that we had there. They said there was too much verticality, and they wanted to remove it, and with some of the fasting thinking I've ever done, I said, "Oh, but that's for the missing in action," and they found that very difficult to counter that argument, so we kept the obelisk. And a few weeks before the dedication and the final erection of the memorial, the sculptor and architect came to me and said, "What plaque are we going to put on this obelisk?" And my wife had taken photographs in Pusan of the missing in action for those with no known grave, and so we transposed the design of that plaque onto an obelisk. We were constrained by ... We wanted to have Korean flora in the surroundings of the memorial, but our heritage people only wanted Australian material, so we were prevented, but some, oh, I suppose 12 years later, they relented, and we were able to incorporate into the design flora from Korea, Korean box, which is placed at every grave, and the Korean Cedar trees, which surround Pusan, so that we were recreating in miniature some of the ambiance of what is in the Pusan Memorial, where 282 of our dead are buried, so that the families can share some of that environment. >> Let's go back to some of the basic numbers for those that don't know how many Australians fought and how many died and how many are missing and how many POWs there were. And I know that post-Armistice there were some that also served after the war. >> Right. We do not know definitely how many were there during the active service time and during the post-Armistice, but there is a rough figure that says around 17,000 served for the totality of the time during the combat time and the post-Armistice time. Some people say that the people there during the combat time would be as few as 13,000, which by that measurement, meant that our casualty rate, taking term into consideration the time we were and the number that were there, was a very high casualty rate compared with other wars that Australia has been involved in. So we still have 43 missing in action. Some of them would be in North Korea, some in the demilitarized zone. I think I've said earlier on that some would be in Hawaii. There were, I think, 27, somewhere in the mid-20s, prisoners of war. >> But they all returned. >> Not all, no. Some are now included in the missing in action because they would have died in the prisoner of war camp and been buried in North Korea in a cemetery there, which we've never been able to get to. We had over 1,200 who were wounded. Originally 339, and they're now found another person, so 340 killed during the combat time. >> How do you think Australians remember or know even about the Korean War veterans? >> Not very well. When I was doing the Korean War Memorial, I went to industry for them to make donations, bearing in mind that because of the winter and the feeling that the Korean War could topple over into the third World War. There was a great demand for a lot of the material that we had in Australia, especially our wool and our strategic materials and some of the minerals. I argued, and I argued in my approach to business, that the Korean War heralded in a period of prosperity for Australia because of the demand for our raw materials. Some people don't agree, but some 50 years after the Korean War when I approached these companies, the corporate secretaries had never heard of the Korean War and wanted to know why we were there. So it is still, for many of the people, a forgotten war. We're trying to make it not forgotten. That is why we had the memorial, so it wouldn't be forgotten, and interviews like this will help us not to be forgotten. >> So when the secretary said, "Why were you there?" what did you answer? How did you answer? >> It was a very sound and strategic decision that we went to the Cold War. In fact, the Korean War was the first how war of the Cold War, and if we hadn't checked the communists in rows onto territories that were more democratic, or in the process of becoming democratic, they wouldn't be encouraged to go further, as in Vietnam. So it was the right decision for Australia to be involved and the right decision for Australia to make its own strategic decision to get involved. We did not automatically go to war, as we did in the first World War and the second World War when Britain went into the war. We made our own independent decision and committed our own forces, but our forces were part of the British Commonwealth Organizations, the Army in the British Commonwealth Division, the Navy with the ships on the west coast were led by a British admiral, and the soldiers were very proud of being in the British Commonwealth Division because the last time they went to war with the British force, and that comprised of the British, the Canadians, the Australians and the New Zealanders, and our soldiers were so proud that they insisted that when we did the Korean War Memorial, as well as having badges for the Navy, Army and Air Force on the face of the memorial, we showed the badge of the British Commonwealth Division., so it was very important to them. It was also an interesting time for Australia that up to the Korean War, in the Army, you had to be a volunteer to serve outside Australia. So for the first World War and the second World War, we had the Australian Imperial Force, which is made up of a big group of volunteers. Up until then, if there was a war, you could only serve in Australian territory unless you were a volunteer. So we had to have volunteers to go into the Korean War from the Army. The Navy and Air Force were automatically committed because of their global span, but for the Army, there had to be a volunteer, and somebody wrote a book called "The Last Call of the Bugle," and that was because people think about responding to the call of the bugle as volunteers, so the Korean War was the last call of the bugle to attract volunteers to serve in the Army overseas. Nowadays, we have a regular force that is volunteers when people join the regular force, but we did not have a standing Army in Australia at that time, and we only had a militia. >> In the '50s? >> In the '50s, yes. We did not have a standing Army. We had a militia who could be expanded in the time of war, and if there were volunteers, they would serve overseas. >> For how long? >> As long as needed. >> Oh, really? >> So some people went right through the second World War, 6 years as volunteers. I had volunteered. My father was second in command of a regiment, which is a militia regiment, and he had to cajole and persuade the members of his regiment to become an AIF regiment, Australian Imperial Force, so they could serve overseas. >> That's very interesting. So let's talk a little bit about Australians who went post-Armistice. Why were they sent post-Armistice? >> They had been committed to Korea or committed to Japan for part of the occupation force, and they had been promised certain entitlements, which one normally associates with active service. But when the Armistice came, and it was only an armistice, and it still is only an armistice. So we had to present to the North Koreans and the Chinese our determination to hold the line, and so we had a large force of the former Allies who remained in Korea. They didn't get a ... And they felt very proud of this, and they felt that they had been ignored in the recognition that we were giving to those who served during the combat time, and there was conflict between those who served in the conflict and those who were post-Armistice. We had to do a study to decide how we would recognize these people in the post-Armistice time, so I was asked to cochair a committee, and we did a 6-month study and came up with what we felt was the right answer to make up their recognition. They got a medal, which was called the General Service Medal for Korea. They did not get the Active Service Medal, which was for those who were in combat, so we felt that was the right balance. >> I was surprised to see that there were about a dozen who died post-Armistice. >> Nineteen died. >> Yeah. >> And vehicle accidents, weapon accidents, all sorts of problems, but it was a very intense time over there. >> Until 1955, right? >> '55, yes. Yeah, and we had a communication group who remained up there after the main force went through, and they were part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force or communications group. >> My last question is, well, first of all, have you been back to Korea? >> Yes, I have. When I announced to the government that we should have a Korean War Memorial ... And it wasn't until we got a visit from the Korean president that we got recognition from the government. I like to think that they were saying, "Hey, we've got the Korean president coming down. What can we demonstrate to him that we have an interest in Korea?" And somebody said, "Well, they're talking about a Korean War Memorial," and the government said, "That'll do." And at the state dinner for the Korean president, our government announced that they were going to dedicated $67,000, and the Korean president stood up and said, "I'll match you," so we were off very well right from the start. Now what ... Your question was ... Oh, Korea! Well, it was at the Korean recognition, the Korean Federation of Industry gave us a huge donation. >> No, have you visited Korea? >> Oh, have I visited Korea? Yes. Yes, I had to go to Korea. I said, "I'm going to England to see my family. I am prepared to divert from Hong Kong, which is the route to England, to go to Korea. If you will pay for that diversion." And so we diverted, and that was my first visit. I've been back since on revisit programs and as part of the International Federation of Korean War Veterans Association. So I've been back a few times, and most impressed by the change, from what I saw. In Pusan in 1950 and Taechongdo, which is a very impoverished island in 1950 and '51, so I just never ceased to be amazed. The urban development, modern technology, like the Korean very fast train, or the French call it Train a Grande Vitesse. I don't know what the Koreans call it, but it is the French technology used between Seoul and Pusan. So marvelous technology, and my sympathies are with the Korean people with this threat across the border. And as we're talking now, there's this unease about what might be the outcome of that. >> I know, for almost 70 years. I truly hope that Korea will achieve lasting peace or even reunification during your lifetime. >> That's going to be a challenge because it's more demanding than the unification of East Germany and West Germany because, you realize that as well as I do, that North Korea has never been exposed to modern culture. It was part of the Japanese kingdom, and then after the war, the North remained that hermit kingdom, which was a term applied to the whole of Korea. They have never, ever been exposed to Western culture. Places like Albania and the Eastern Bloc in Europe, yes, they have been, but it'd be an enormous change for the people to adjust to, and a great burden fall on the people of South Korea. >> Well, I don't know if and when and how or whether they should, but all I know is that this war that still hasn't ended should end, and there should be peace, so that at least there's no threat, even if there's no unification. There's no threat of constant threat of war. >> Yes. >> I think that would be the greatest honor that would be given to the Korean War veterans who really sacrificed their lives, their time to defend Korea. >> I agree entirely, Hannah. And the other thing, it made us realize that the Asian culture is different, and we had to adjust and understand that. Those of us who have been back and have been sufficiently interested to study the cultures of East Asia, which is China, Korea, Japan, and realize that each one of those is different. So trying to achieve harmony in East Asia is not an easy thing. >> It isn't, and that is why, all the more, thank you for your service. One last question, you retired as Rear Admiral, right? >> Yes. >> What was your rank when you were in Korea? >> Oh, midshipman. >> Oh! >> At 18. I had my 19th birthday in Inchon. >> Wow. How many years were you in the Navy? >> Forty years. >> Wow! >> I was in a British ship because when we left our Naval College in Australia ... Because we didn't have a big fleet, therefore we didn't have the range of experience of a large fleet. So at the age of 17 leaving the Naval College, we went and served with the Royal Navy, with the British Navy, for 3 1/2 years. And so ... >> And you were born where? >> Here, in Sydney. >> Canberra? Oh, Sydney! Not Canberra. >> No. >> Okay. >> No. No. >> But you lived in Canberra for a while? >> I lived I Canberra for 30 years. When you got old in the Navy, you end up in Canberra, which is where the headquarters is. >> Yes, of course. >> And our children went to school there, but I finished the Korean War Memorial. Kathy didn't like the cold of Canberra. Our children had moved to Sydney and got married and had children, and she said, "We're going to Sydney." And here we are. >> And here you are. Well, thank you so much, again. This is wonderful. >> Yeah.
>> I'm Harry Spicer. I'm a Korean War veteran. I was in the British Army, and I went to Korea in August 1950, and I was there for 10 months. Then we went back from there back to Hong Kong, where we were before we went to Korea, and then I spent 3 months in Malaya and came back to Hong Kong again, and then I transferred to the Parachute Regiment, and I went back to England in the December of that year, and I joined the Parachute Regiment. It was just [INAUDIBLE] and we met our ex-colonel, a Korean War veteran, and he wanted to get a monument for the Korean Veterans in Sydney. I met with him, and then a few of us met with him, actually, and we decided we'd form a committee, and he was the president of the committee. I was the vice president, and we got together. We started talking about the monument. We always said just we want from the government just the land to build the memorial on and that we didn't need money because the Korean colonel had said, "We don't need money. We just want the ground to put the memorial on." So I got my local member of parliament to try and get an interview with Morris Iemma, who was the Premier of New South Wales then, to talk to him about getting the land to build the memorial, and whenever I met with him, we told him that, "We just want the land. We don't want money," because the colonel says, "Don't worry about the money. Money will be okay." So he accepted that, and at the next meeting of the Korean Veterans, which they hold 1 day a year in Government House in Sydney, and in his speech, he spoke about it, and he said, "I'm behind it 101 percent where possible and to get everything we can done to get this memorial. We've just got to get the memorial built." So then they formed a committee with the government, and basically, the government took over the organizing of the monument, and we had the committee. I was on the committee. There was a number of government people, the government surveyor and finance minister from the government and the Korean from the Korean Veterans Association, and we got the committee to start doing the memorial. The first thing, of course, was to get the land, so the government looked at a number of places that we could get, and they offered them to us, and we looked at them, and what they offered wasn't suitable, we didn't think. Then they came up with the site at Moore Park in Sydney, and we looked at that and said, "Oh, yeah, that's it. That's the place to build the memorial." So the decision was made, and we told the government that we would like to have that in Moore Park, and they accepted that, and then we started working on the memorial itself, the design and everything else of the memorial, and I don't know how many meetings we had, but it used to be every week, every couple weeks, once a month, at different times just when it was needed to make decisions on what we must do, but all the work was being done by the government, the architects, detail with parliament, the government surveyor, government finance, all the bodies that were needed for to build the memorial. They all had a position on the committee. So we was there, and we made our suggestions of what we want, and they'd ask us exactly what we wanted, what sort of thing we wanted. So it was decided that we get some quotes of designs, and I think we had about five. Lots of people gave us a design for the memorial. We went through them. We picked the one that we do have now, which as far as we were concerned was the number one pick, and by the response we've had from people since it's been built, we made the right decision, and so then it was there from then on. We got to ... So then we got onto raising the funds for the memorial. We did tell the government that we won't need money, but the colonel's idea was ... He was the fella who said that we don't need money, but we didn't know at the time, he had cancer, and it wasn't long after, we got the decision from the government that they were going to support it, and he passed. So I took over the presidency of the committee, which is the Australian and Korean War Memorial Association, and then from there on, we just carried on with the government, and gradually got all of the things necessary done and got to the building of the memorial and the design. They came up with the design of the memorial, but some of the things on it, they didn't. We got the names of all the countries that served in Korea on the pathway on the memorial. That was my idea, and we also put the names of all of the battles that the Australians served at and that became battles, and we got the names of all those on different stones within the memorial, and also then we got the Korean national flag, and we had poles with the national flag on them in the memorial, and we also had the copies of the medals that the Australians received, the United Nations medal and the Korean medal, and the Korean medal is the same as is given to any of the Commonwealth forces that fought in Korea. When the British got the medals, they all got the war medal for Korea. >> What have been the reactions of ... What do the veterans feel about this memorial? >> They're happy with it. >> Mm. >> They are happy with it, yeah. I don't think we've had any comments that was against any part of it, so it's worked out that we liked it. They liked it, so that's it, and nobody's ever said, "We should have done this. We should have done that." >> Oh, yeah. >> I think people are happy with what we finished on. >> And the significance of the area, the surrounding area? >> That's got no significance with regards to the Korean War. >> Oh, you're right, but the significance of this area with Anzac Parade. >> Yeah, no, that didn't come into it either. It was just the place where ... >> I know, but isn't it still very meaningful that it's ... >> Oh, well, it's on Anzac Parade. >> Yeah. >> It's on Anzac Parade, yeah, yeah. >> And where it's the Anzac Parade across where they're commemorating World War I. >> Yeah. >> Yeah. >> There's a memorial, yeah. >> It's not just a ... >> A special dedication ... >> It's not just randomly located in a remote area. >> Yeah, yeah. >> It's a pretty significant road part. >> It is, yeah. >> Yeah. Now let's go back to your experience in the war a little bit. So do you have any recollections, something, I don't know, like an anecdote from the war, your time in Korea in 1950? >> We went there in August of '50, and there was the Middlesex Regiment and the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, and at that time, we only held the Pusan area, around the Pusan area of Korea, and I think, basically, the North Koreans had run out of steam, and they were getting their reserves up and everything before they moved on, and in that time, of course, there was getting more troops out there. We were the first troops after the Americans to go there, the British who got to do so, and we was the 27th Brigade. Then in the ... I think it was about October ... The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment joined us, and then we became 27th British Commonwealth Brigade. Then after that, we had New Zealand Artillery join us. They came into the brigade, and we also got the Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry Battalion join us, and there was an Indian medical team that joined us, and so we was the Commonwealth Brigade. We was always under strength, and the units, when we took over an area from the Americans, we'd have a battalion to take over where they had a brigade, so the ... A brigade is about three times the size of a battalion, so we was taking over a much bigger area, which made it more dangerous because with people on the ground compared to what they were, and the first thing that we had as far as the war was concerned is that we was in positions on the Nakdong River, and we got shelled and mortared, and the noise, it's unbelievable. It was just so loud, and there's nothing to do. What we'd do is just sit in our trench and hope that it didn't land in our trench, which it didn't, thank goodness, and a short time after that, we had to ... We set out on a platoon patrol across the Nakdong River, and it wasn't a fighting patrol. It was just to observe, see if we could find out what was going on, went across the river. There's sand beaches each side of the Nakdong River, and we turned left as we went across from the boats, and we left a section with the boats, and then the other two sections went along the beachline, from the beachline along, and we must have been probably about a mile or so along there, and we looked up in the hills, and we saw the enemy up on the hills, and we saw them waving. They was waving people from the other side of the hill, and they were all of a sudden [Indistinct] gunning at as with machine guns, and we couldn't touch them because it was too far for us with our rifles or [Indistinct] guns to extend, and so we hit the ground as soon as they started, and where the river goes along, most of the other section, the two, was along the line of the river, but my section, I was in section one. My section went from the edge of the river up to this bank where the other section was, so it went ... The shots was going around us, and they were so close. I just thought myself, "If you're going to hit me, hit me," because the tension was so, so great, and then as soon as there was just a lapse in the machine gun fire, [INAUDIBLE] in the bank, so we dashed it to the bank. We had with us four Americans. They was for if we needed artillery support. As soon as the Koreans opened fire, three of the Americans took off, and it was on officer, sergeant and two others, but the officer stayed, and one of the Americans, when they took off, got hit. He got right through the middle, but he was okay. So when we finished up, we carried him out, and when they fired, we'd get down, and when they stopped firing, we'd get up and move, and we also had our own machine guns on the other side of the river firing at them to keep them down as well. So we come in on the way back, and I was right behind that [INAUDIBLE], and walking along, I said to him, "I think there might be a reception or something [INAUDIBLE] that come down and try and block us off," and he said, "Yeah," because he was that tense, and then all of a sudden, there was a noise of machine gun, and we hit the ground, and he was still standing up. I said, "Was that you, sir?" He said, "Yeah." His machine gun went off, but anyway, we found out when we got back the boats, the other Americans was there, the ones that took off, the two that took off, and they'd have taken the boats if we hadn't got the section out, and there was a party coming down to meet us, but our machine guns opened on them, so that broke them up, so we was right there, so we got back in the boats, and we crossed the river, and that was that. The night before we went down to the river, we slept in Korean houses overnight, and we went overnight, went through their clothing. We got back, and that was okay, and then after that, we moved forward across the river, and we was given the job of taking a particular hill, which was later called Middlesex Hill because that was the British [Indistinct], and we had platoon go first with a small hill and then a large hill went on from there, and the platoon went, just one platoon, went and took the small hill, and I think they got two killed taking that hill. Then the rest of the company took the larger hill, and we lost ... I think we lost about three or four taking the hill, and it took us nearly all day to get up to the top of the hill, and the Koreans, there was some dead, and some had took off, and when we got there, they had fires, and one the North Koreans had got thrown into the fire, and his clothes was burning, and his ammunition was exploding out of his body, and [INAUDIBLE], and it was with his own [INAUDIBLE] explode. Then at the nighttime, they mortared us, and we had another one killed when he was wounded. The next day, the Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders was to take another hill the other side of the road to where we were, and when they went up, we used to have color signs that we used to have made out on the ground. They'd be red or yellow or whatever, and they'd be sort of in a cross one day, two lines together another day, all different sort of shapes so that the air knew that we were friendly. Well, they had their colors, and they had them on the floor, but the Americans came and they bombed them, and with the ... what? What do they call the bombs? >> Mortar? >> No, fire. >> [INAUDIBLE] bombs? >> No. >> Flash bombs? >> No, the ones they drop from the airplanes. >> Air bombs? >> What? >> Air bombs. >> What? What'd you say? >> [INAUDIBLE] >> No. Once you're up there, you drop the bombs, and it's just all fire, flame and ... >> Yeah, napalm. >> Napalm, they dropped ... We'll have to sort that out. They dropped napalm on the Argylls, and I don't remember how many they killed. I think there was about 20 or something killed, and then the second-in-command of the Argylls, Major Muir, he won the VC on that, but they came down, and we were still on a hill. My company was on this hill over here, and the rest of the battalion was down behind, and they went up and helped get the Argylls get down. Then we moved on from there, and we did a little bit in the country, looking for any North Koreans who might be hanging around. Then that's when the Australians joined us, and we flew up to Seoul to keep [INAUDIBLE] airport. The Australians stayed there for a while cleaning up, and then we was at the airport probably about 3 days [INAUDIBLE] and we started moving north, and so every day, we'd get in our trucks, go north, stop at night, dig in. Maybe we'd have some action. Maybe we wouldn't. Maybe we'd run into some action. We'd just keep it as we went, and we did that all the way up, and there was a number of battles. I can't remember what they were, all of them, but there was a number of battles, and we got as far as ... What is it? I can't think of the damn name. [INAUDIBLE], I think it was. I think it was [INAUDIBLE]. We got as far as there, and then the winter started coming in, and then all of a sudden they said, "Chinese on horseback," you see, and the Chinese came into the war, came across the border, and they stayed there quite a while. We didn't even know they were there. They didn't know [INAUDIBLE] and there was hundreds of thousands of them. They came [INAUDIBLE], and when they did, our brigade was out on its own, and they were saying nothing could save the British 27th Brigade because the north would surround us and we would be gone, but anyway we did. We got out. We came back, and as we came back, we had to fight and withdraw, and we got action, and that is when some troops stayed in their position to let the others come through, and all the time when doing that, when we were in our position, we were expecting the enemy to be right behind them, so you'd expect that you're going to get caught, but luckily, we didn't. We just got away with it, but we got back and went way back down to the other side of the border, the 38th parallel, which I think we stopped there. We dug in and everything else. Then the Chinese came, and then there was a backwards and forwards, and we left in the ... June, I think it was, we left. June, we left and then went back to Hong Kong, and from there, from Hong Kong, I went to ... The battalion had to stay there another 10 months or something to complete their 3 years, but I volunteered for the Parachute Regiment, and I went back to England to join the Parachute Regiment. >> Mm.
>> My name is Peter Berger. I served in Korea in 1952 but not a long time. Most of the time, I was in headquarters. From Korea, which as I said, wasn't a very long time, I was sent in Japan and was in [INAUDIBLE] in Japan. Actually, the second time, it was over in [INAUDIBLE], and we spent our time running up and down the hills. We got very fit, but while [INAUDIBLE] I sent out the signals, and I used to work on the switchboard or phones or whatever was needed. And from Korea, I went to Japan, as I said, and I spent quite some time there, and then we were sent to Singapore. And in Singapore, I saw advertised, people saying that they needed NGOs to volunteer for the Gurkhas. So I volunteered for the Gurkha, and I went out of the country to a place called Seremban, and I spent the rest of my time there serving with the Gurkhas. Then I was sent home, and I really didn't want to go home because I was quite enjoying myself, and you might think I did fly home, and I had to leave most of my stuff that I had collected over the time, all of it there, including beautiful Gurkha khukuri. You know the big knife? So I had to leave that one there too, but I already said it all. >> Okay, but I still wanted you on camera.
>> My name is Mick Kilhov. I live in Australia now. I served in Korea with the British Army, the 10th Regiment. I had never heard about Korea. I didn't know where it was. I couldn't even point on a map where Korea was, but anyway, I was serving in Germany and was sent from Germany back to the UK to familiarize ourselves with the Centurion tank, which is the heavy tank used with the armor, and after 6 weeks, we were put on a ship, the Empire Halladale, at Liverpool, and it took us 6 weeks to get from Liverpool in England to Pusan. When we got to Pusan, there was an American band on the docks. They were playing, "If I Knew You Were Comin' I'd've Baked a Cake," which we thought was hilarious. We were then unloaded, put on to flatcars and sent on these flatcars from Pusan to Uijeongbu. We went to Uijeongbu. That's the only Korean place I can remember going up to. I remember Seoul. Yes, I remember that, but it was in the middle of the night, pitch black. We were given a bag of rations. The first ration we had was homemade sandwiches, an apple, which you couldn't eat because it frozen solid. During the middle of the night, the train stopped because they said there was going to be an air raid. There was no air raid, but we did stop there, and a little voice came out of the dark, and it wanted to know if we wanted to swap some food for what they had. All they had was apples. We gave them what we had, just sandwiches and a piece of fruit cake. That's what we were given, and they gave us these apples, and we could not bite these apples. We had to hit it with a bayonet, and it shattered like glass. It was frozen solid. Anyway, when we got to Uijeongbu, in the case of taking over from another regiment who were pulling out from Korea, and we took over their positions, and we had Alpha, Beta and Charlie squadrons. Three squadrons were sent to three different areas, some on the Imjin River. I don't know the name of the Korean location. I just know that it was Hill 355, Green Finger, Winston Churchill, Jane Russell. These were all features in Korea, and by then, we weren't told very much about what's going on. We just got what we called a sitrep every morning, a situation report. We were told what action was going on during the night, what action, what we had been through, and I remember being hit by 99 mortars one night on the tank. It didn't make much difference. It blew all the camouflage nets off and the antenna for the radio. It wasn't a very pleasant place. It was just a case of very, very cold in the winter and very hot in the summer. Rations were very meager unless you got combat rations, which were supplied by the Americans. Normal British rations were bully beef and hardtack biscuits, and these tins of bully beef were 7-pound tins that were leftover from the Second World War, and when you took the top off, we had a hiss of gas coming from the meat, and the meat was black. So you had to cut the outside off with your knife and then get to the real piece of meat underneath, the bully beef, and we had hardtack biscuits full of weevils. We had to tap them on the side. We also had what they called pom, which is powdered potato, dehydrated potato, and I can distinctly remember the cook used to ask us, "What would you like today? Would you like a bit of steak and chips?" And you'd say, "No. Just give us the usual," and he'd say, "Oh, do you want your potato mashed, fried?" It was all the same. It was just boiled, boiled, boiled, powdered potato. That was what we had. Combat rations were good. Whenever we could, if we could get to an American camp, they were very generous. We could get from Marines anything you could pick off the table. Whatever they were eating, they'd give you, and at the end of the table, there was stuff donated by American firms. There were things like Hershey bars, writing material, torches, pens, writing paper, and right at the end, you put your name down, and you got a Chicago Herald Tribune sent to you once a month. Very handy because you had nothing else to read, and it was very useful at the end of that period to use as toilet paper as well. The thing that left me my lasting memory of Korea was the suffering of little children. It really left a mark on me. Normally, I wouldn't shed tears, but after seeing little babies and little girls and boys in the condition they were in, it really affected me. I did more than a year in Korea. I was then claimed by my older brother to his regiment. It was an artillery regiment. So I went over to spend another 3 months with them. We then went from Korea. We said farewell to our friends in Pusan who were lying sleeping in the cemetery. We went from there to Hong Kong for another year or just over, and by that time, because we had come from Germany with our own seas for 3 years, we went back to UK. And within 5 months of getting back to UK, I was then called up again for Cyprus. We were sent to Cyprus for a year. In the meantime, I got married on one day, the 22nd of October, 1955, and on the 24th of October, I was on an aircraft carrier on my way to Cyprus, where I spent a year. Having done that, I came back to leave the Army for a few months and got called up again, honored to be called up for Suez Canal trouble. So anyway, that's a part of my life, and I'm quite happy I've been married 62 years now to the same woman. I've got one daughter, and I live in Australia now. I'm quite happy with my lot. I've never been back in the UK. I have no desire to go back there. I've just been involved with the Korean War Veteran Association here. I've been their president for over 10 years. I'm still the president emeritus and their quartermaster. So I just do what I can to help my fellow man. I do a lot of hospital visits. I visit people who are in nursing homes who have had sickness, strokes, dementia. That's as much as I can do for my fellow man, and I hope one day, and I've also decreed that when I pass away and I leave this mortal coil that my body goes to research. I don't want a funeral. I don't want anything left of me. It'll go to the University of New South Wales. And I'll say my goodbyes there. Thank you.
>> Hi, everybody. This is the last stop, last video in the Philippines, but I want to tell the story of the president during the Korean War. The president sent his only son and ... >> Son-in-law. >> ... his son-in-law to also fight alongside the 7,500 who volunteered to go to Korea. >> Yes. >> Talk about really believing in something. He really believed that it was more the defense, the democracy and freedom that it was worth sending his own son, so I am here at PEFTOK, the Korean War Memorial Hall with the director here, Mark, who is a good friend now. [INAUDIBLE] in touch, but he's going to give us more explanation of this center, so let's go in. >> So before, I explained what is the reason for this wall. So the center was inaugurated, or the museum was inaugurated in March 29, 2012, so it's about 7 years old. >> Wow. >> PEFTOK was established under the administration under secretary Ernesto Pernia, so up to [INAUDIBLE] office. >> Wow. >> Yeah. This was inaugurated by no other than the president then, President Benigno Aquino III and along with the Minister of Patriots and Veterans of Korea, Minister Park Sung-Choon. >> Yeah. You know, again, the Philippines has the best center of Korean War veterans I have seen anywhere in the world. >> Thank you for that. >> Yes, so thank you, and again, of course, this is a most renowned, most well-known saying, that freedom is not free. It is paid for with the blood of fighting men and stained with the tears of loved ones left behind, and ... >> That's also Philippines Expeditionary Force to Korea, 1950 to '55, so for 3 years, we fought the North Koreans. We fought the Chinese. We fought the Russians. For the last 3 years, from '53 to '55, we help rebuild South Korea. >> I know. So we're going to go on the tour through this way. So this is very well-done with a lot of detail, a lot of detail, so ... >> This is the general side tour stating the Korean War history, and this will give you dates, of course. >> Yes. >> A general information about the PEFTOK, so about the fight battalions that we sent during the war, beginning in September 1950. >> So September 15 is when the war started getting very ... I'm seeing a lot of action. >> Yes. >> Remember Inch'on Landing ... >> Inch'on. >> ... took place September 15th, so here, the five battalions are ... >> The tenth, so the tenth battalion combat team, the first Filipino battalion to be sent during the war. >> And they, in the Battle of Yultong, I visited the memorial in Korea honoring Filipinos. >> In Yeoncheon. >> Yup, in Yeoncheon, and there, the Battle of Yultong, the Filipinos were outnumbered, like, 900 to, like, 40,000. >> Forty-thousand. >> Yes. I wasn't making it up, and they stood ground, and that one was a good one for them, right? >> So we lost just 26 soldiers. >> So the second ... >> Battalion, it's the 20th battalion combat team, so ... >> Mm, and [INAUDIBLE]. Okay. I want to point out something here that I have never seen anywhere, okay? I've never seen the entire roster of troops in any country. >> So only us. >> Yes. I've never seen it. We have the names of those who died. >> Okay. >> But we don't have names of those who served. >> Served. >> So all 7,500 are here. >> Are here. >> Oh, my gosh. Yeah, and their number. >> Yes, their serial numbers, their military special here are all included. >> That is so wonderful. I just love that, and so here again ... Oh, I just wanted to show this one because it gives you an idea of the total number of troops. America, 1.8M. Philippines sent almost 7,500, so that was actually ... You're the, maybe, one ... like, the fifth largest? >> Yeah. >> Yeah, right? >> Fifth. >> Yeah, the fifth largest, and 112 did not come back, so ... >> Some of the prisoners of war. >> Oh, okay. How many were there? >> Forty-one were prisoners of war, and we were able to get back in 1953. >> Wow. Okay. So here is, again, the 19 battalion. >> Nineteen. >> They fought in 1952 to '53. >> So this is where president's giving of son belongs. He's with the 19, and his son-in-law as well. >> Yes. The son-in-law, right, or son, they were not in combat, but they were doing signal, and he requested that he see action, right? >> Yes. >> Because he wanted to prove to the president that he would not be spared, but he was also brave enough, but luckily, he made it home alive. >> Yes. >> Oh, another thing, and I immediately sobbed. It made me cry when I [INAUDIBLE]. It was the most poignant movie, but was it the son or the son-in-law where he was diagnosed with cancer? >> The son-in-law. >> Yeah, the son-in-law, and he wanted to go visit the [INAUDIBLE] >> The [INAUDIBLE] >> Yeah. >> That's his last request. >> That was his last request. That really broke my heart. Oh, my god. Oh. >> And his name is First Lieutenant Gonzalez, the air force pilot. >> Oh, wow. And this is president Quirino ... >> Son, son-in-law. >> Son-in-law, yes, and so this was the last remaining battalion, right? >> Yeah, the fourth battalion. >> Oh, fourth battalion, and they stayed until '54. Oh, yeah. And here's the last. >> Yes, so this organized to reveal Korea. >> Yes. >> These are the engineers, the teachers, the nurses, the doctors. >> Yes. Another thing I was touched with in the video was that when everybody left, there was one officer and 14 men that stayed for 3 more months ... >> Yes. >> ... to just help kind of pack things, right? >> Yes, logistics. >> Yes, but when the 15 of them were departing home to come back home to the Philippines, they were given full military honor and send-off, and I remember in the video him saying that was the spirit of the United Nations and democracy. >> Yes. >> Yeah. That was another heartfelt moment for me, so again, major Filipino [INAUDIBLE] victories are. There are five [INAUDIBLE] >> So that's [INAUDIBLE], so that's November 11, 1950. This is where the battle [INAUDIBLE] Young got his gold cross. >> Yes, yes, and then ... >> And then Yultong, of course, which is very proud moment for Philippine military history, and then we have Battles of Hill Eerie so where president Ramos became known. >> Okay. >> Then the next one is ... >> Oh, yeah. What that means is that he was a second lieutenant at the time, but later, becomes the president of the Philippines. Yes. And then ... >> Yeah, Battle for Combat, August number 8. That's a 5-day battle between the Chinese and the Filipino soldiers. >> Okay. And the last one ... >> And the last one is the Christmas Hill Battle, June 15, 1953. >> So these are not the only battles they won. These are the major battles that they won. >> Yes. >> Yes, so the Philippine Air Force and Navy as well as the battalions were also in the Korean War. >> Yes. >> Right. >> The Korean War was the first armed forces of the Philippines joint operation, so each battalion [INAUDIBLE] air force officer [INAUDIBLE]. >> Wow, so that is awesome, everybody! And last but not least, here is their uniform. That does not look warm enough for the cold, okay, because that looks like a raincoat almost, because as you know, the Philippines are islands, and it's hot here, so imagine going to Korea where they've never seen snow probably. >> Yes. Actually, that's the one thing that they encountered that [INAUDIBLE] the snow. >> Yes. Yes. >> They could fought anything, but not against the snow. >> Yes. They said they were also fighting against the cold. Here are their weapons. Again, warm clothes that don't look warm. >> So these two are still alive. Lieutenant Batolas is around 90, and lieutenant Bachele is still 89. >> Wow. I'm telling you there's longevity here. I need to move to the Philippines. And here, I will end by saying thank you, Philippines. The Republic of Korea, of course, came here and always thanks you, but here as a person that is an individual, forget being American. Forget being a Korean American. As a human being, I said it's a love story that the president will say, "I believe in this cause. I'm going to send my only son and my son-in-law to fight for this cause." I think that just really symbolizes love, the greatest love of all that one would risk his life for a friend, and so thank you so much, Mark. >> You're welcome. >> Thank you to the veterans and veterans all over the world. Yeah. It's a reminder. I'm just reminding all of you, okay? Freedom is not free, so thank you again, and remember 7/27. Bye!
>> Hey, everybody. I am now inside the museum hall of Veterans' Association, and I wanted to share some stories of the veterans in their own words. So with me here today, I have four Korean War veterans. There are only 500 remaining in the entire country. Seventy-five hundred went, but here they are. Now first time before I start. How old do you think my grandpa here, Max, how old do you think he is? Okay? If you guessed 86, not even close. Grandpa, how old are you? How young are you? >> Ninety-six years young. >> Ninety-six years young. I think he's living up to his name because his name is Maximus Young, so we will start with him because he is the youngest. Okay. So I'm going to start here, Grandpa. Do you want to face this way? >> No, it's okay. >> Okay. So please tell us your name, your ... Oh, he also served in World War II, Korea and Vietnam. Yes, but right now, could you show us ... tell some of your experiences in the Korean War? >> The Korean War? >> Yes. >> Well, I'll first explain that we had ... We arrived there, and the first night, we were in a boat of [INAUDIBLE]. Now we were issued sleeping bags. The following morning, it was a surprise. Instead of my soldiers waking up at 5 or 6, at the earliest crack, we were screaming. It was, some of their bunkers ... some of their sleeping bags were with snakes, so we were sleeping in a rice field with a ring of snakes. [INAUDIBLE] and from there on, we walked and started on, and from there, we would stand up [INAUDIBLE] and our supply line, we went by the third army among them. [INAUDIBLE]. My son, Julian Sanchez, not in that unit, and they were disturbing our supply line. Some of our crops were destroyed. Some of our crops were broken outside, so what the country did was for us to [INAUDIBLE], was changing because the place where most of the North Koreans were. It was in November, in mid-November of 1951 in November, [INAUDIBLE]. Now as we were going north, [INAUDIBLE] our craft hit land mine. Land mine more less throw our craft about 5 to 10 meters high and hit some people that were in a car, but they were thrown up. Now that was a signal then that we were [INAUDIBLE] because in military operations, usually [INAUDIBLE] before there is a [INAUDIBLE]. So [INAUDIBLE] that the land mine was an initial warning to the troops that an enemy is coming. As we passed [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], many people went straight, and then in a certain area, it was about 800 yards. We saw later on, [INAUDIBLE] pass the bank, that's where we start finding the guys. It was 10 o'clock in the morning. >> I just want to stop here because isn't his memory impeccable? How do you remember all the details, what time it was? Oh, my goodness. Wow! I barely remember what time it is right now. >> Literally, when you visited me, you were ... >> Aw. >> Aw. [ Chatter ] >> Aw. >> Seeing you bring this feeling back. >> Aw. [ Chatter ] >> And when he was farming last year, I visited him in Manila. He was at the hospital, so I visited him in the hospital wearing a mask. >> Oh, yeah, wearing a mask. [INAUDIBLE] if this is the end, there were about 10 bunks. All of those bunks was [INAUDIBLE] in the area. So [INAUDIBLE]. All of the [INAUDIBLE]. Now our plan [INAUDIBLE] the first job is follow by the soldiers, so on and so forth. [INAUDIBLE]. Now when they find us suddenly, we were all paralyzed. Even the soldiers had to float [INAUDIBLE]. So what I did, what we did was [INAUDIBLE] and found out that the soldiers there were dropping, literally dropping, and certain [INAUDIBLE] certain area. [INAUDIBLE] ready for an attack. So it was terrible. [INAUDIBLE] what I did, I picked it back up and then turn right to the hills, but it so happened that [INAUDIBLE] the right side wasn't prepared, so we wake up with [INAUDIBLE]. So what I did is, I told my brother to lift up, but [INAUDIBLE] and this was hit. So what I did, I opened the compartment [INAUDIBLE]. You can see the whole area [INAUDIBLE], and so the soldiers [INAUDIBLE] in different sections. So I opened my [INAUDIBLE]. There was no protection. I suddenly walked and more or less ducked and found five boxes of [INAUDIBLE] and started firing at the roof where they were assembled. As I started fighting, [INAUDIBLE] all of them jumping. No, no, [INAUDIBLE], for every five bullets, there's one tracer to find out where the direction of your firing. [ Chatter ] >> I could take the firing ... tracer bullets. [INAUDIBLE] a tracer, which will find out where you bullets went through. So I started fighting out on the trenches. I also fought. There were soldiers. There were soldiers. I continued fighting for almost 10 minutes, so when I started fighting, the soldiers sat up and started fighting, and all of a sudden [INAUDIBLE] supported ... >> Yeah. >> ... supported the fighters. >> So we just finished watching this ... >> After 45 minutes ... >> Yes, and he was a hero. >> Wow. >> Well ... >> And he's not saying it. >> That's just ... >> And he's not saying it, but he's a hero. You know what I'm going to do? I'm going to show ... >> Okay. >> Look at him, his medals. Right? And he received recently last, 2 years ago, the Order of Military Merit which is, I think, the highest honor from Korea from the president, so look at the medals. So this was donated to the museum, and now it's displayed here. That is Grandpa Maximus Young, and I know, since I remember from last year, his secret to staying young is, he's active. He plays a lot of badminton, and he's very, very optimistic, and he has a beautiful wife, so that's the secret. Okay? >> And in for mean time, stop calling me Grandpa. I'm just as spirited and handsome as you are. >> Yes. Well, I am also going to ask ... [ Chatter ] >> General. So he retired as a brigadier general, right? >> Yes. I am a retired general. >> Yes. >> And [INAUDIBLE]. >> Yes. >> But I was only second lieutenant at the time I went to Korea in the 2nd Battalion, Number Two, and [INAUDIBLE]. After they said, "Hey, you, check on the city," [INAUDIBLE] there was already a cease-fire, and the United Nations officers were already at the demilitarized zone, but then upon arrival in [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] or that portion of the demilitarized zone where in the United Nations forces were laid out, we were assigned a division reserve of 24th US Division, the 2nd Battalion Combat Team. So actually by the time we got there to Korea, [INAUDIBLE] there was no more fighting, but then there was a cease-fire but no peace, and I [INAUDIBLE] that there were possibility that the Communist Chinese would resume their infiltration through the demilitarized zone. >> You're absolutely right. So even after the cease-fire was signed, there were many skirmishes. >> That's true. >> They were still fighting, and people even died ... >> Yeah. >> ... on both sides. >> In fact, several of my men, about eight men, when we were at patrol, the area in [INAUDIBLE], from the other side blew up the last night, and it holds, what, of eight men, of my men, in 2nd Battalion [INAUDIBLE]. >> And he retired as a brigadier general for how many years? >> I've been a brigadier general since 1970. >> And he's only 86 years old. >> Ninety-two. >> Ooh, just kidding. Ninety-two. Oh, man. I think I need to move to the Philippines because something you're drinking there, you seem very young. Okay. This is now the president of pep talk. Now he's 90, 91 years old. >> Yes, 91 years old. >> Young, yes, what was ... >> I went to Korea. I was 25 years old. >> Yes. >> Second lieutenant, [INAUDIBLE]. Our location deployment was [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], Bali, [INAUDIBLE], so [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], Bali, [INAUDIBLE], a few weeks there, but up there about, I think, 14 months. There was [INAUDIBLE] brigade, [INAUDIBLE]. >> Yeah. >> [INAUDIBLE] more than one company. So we were made to ... >> Replace them. >> ... to replace them and climb up the hill. >> Yes. I saw the movie, in the film. >> Yeah. And as we go up passing by the tree where [INAUDIBLE] this pile-up, [INAUDIBLE] such and such there, dead people, so sometimes, you have to think about it. [ Chatter ] >> The smell of the dead and the injured. I know. You still remember that, huh? >> Oh, yeah. >> Yeah. We get to remember. >> Well, I hope that now you reflected, and it's not traumatic for you anymore. I hope that, okay, that you don't get nightmares. >> Very good. [ Chatter ] >> [INAUDIBLE]. We trained. [ Chatter ] >> Yeah. We trained. [ Chatter ] >> So it [INAUDIBLE], we will never die. >> Well, I hope you will live forever. Okay. Last but not least, the youngest of the bunch. You're the youngest, right? >> Yep. >> Yes? Okay. Now tell us your story. >> Oh, very simple one. You might be interested to know why I went to Korea. >> Okay. I am interested. >> I was 18 years old, newly graduated from high school when someone [INAUDIBLE] ... >> Uh-oh. >> ... and me, and because of my desperation, I thought, I'll voluntary [INAUDIBLE]. >> Oh! >> So what I did was got myself listed as a private in April of 1952, and on March of the following year, I was already going. >> Mm-hmm. >> I was barely 21 when I was in Korea, and how the Koreans do it, [INAUDIBLE] pretty girls, very amusing. >> Amusing? Oh, amusing. >> And actually 3 months after we were to Korean front lines, I enjoyed my first taste of R & R, meaning rest and recuperation where I met beautiful women. I tell you, they were very accommodating. In fact, The second time I met her, after 1 month, she was already my girlfriend. >> Oh! >> So fancy that. >> Yeah, so ... >> No. I feel very lucky in Korea, but I arrived in Korea in March of 1953. I was promoted to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], one stripe, one round, I get.. After 2 months, corporate. After 5 months, sergeant. >> Wow. >> In a period of 5 months, I got three stripes. >> Wow! >> The third was the target. In September of the same year, in September of 1953, I was sent to Tokyo, Japan, to be the rising sergeant of [INAUDIBLE] to the United Nations Command in [INAUDIBLE]. >> Wow. >> Yeah. That was a bold moment. >> Yeah. >> ... for my country and heroism in action, not in the front lines but in the country because I belonged to the girl concerned with [INAUDIBLE]. I never should have brought that. I was [INAUDIBLE], and so after that, I was still in Japan in the union, the Wartime Division. By the way, I am very proud of the Wartime Division. There is something which holds the Wartime Division distinct from the other divisions. >> Yes. >> We stopped the shooting right in Korea! Did you know that? >> Yes. >> [INAUDIBLE] July 27th, 1953, and the pep-talk union that was in Korea at that time [INAUDIBLE] the importance of [INAUDIBLE] battalion [INAUDIBLE]. >> Wow. >> So that is [INAUDIBLE]. >> Thank you. You know, actually, it's very nice to see that your memory of war is not so dark, but it's actually ... You know, you're ... He's a great storyteller. >> Yeah. >> And he has a very good sense of humor. I love the fact that your recollection is very pleasant. >> Yeah. >> I love that, that you're not holding pain and bitterness. So thank you so much, and you're absolutely correct. I also love the fact that you take so much pride in what you and the 14th Battalion contributed. I think every soldier who went to Korea should be very proud. It doesn't matter, like you said, whether you were in the front lines or the back line or in the office. It takes an entire military ... >> Yeah. >> ... not only one military but of many different United Nations, and then that's how we were able to stop fighting. >> Yeah. >> And, well, technically, the war hasn't ended, but look at me. I was able to, you know, gain freedom thanks to you and to all of you, and so all of them, I gave this heart. >> Yeah. >> Yay. Yay. Do you remember my heart with the flag, the American flag? Well, since they're Filipinos and not American, but I gave them this piece of ... >> Thank you very much. >> ... this piece of my heart. >> Much love, much love. >> Yeah, much love ... >> Much love. >> ... much love that all of you can remember my heart, my love, my gratitude. >> Thank you. Thank you. >> Thank you. Thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Oh, yes. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], and so again, everybody, these are my grandpas, my colloquial grandpas. Yay. [ Chatter ] >> So I'm so grateful that we came to meet you on such short notice, so, everybody, let's say ... What's a good Filipino word to say? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Thank you. Bye. >> Okay. Bye. >> [INAUDIBLE]
>> I am Robert Jupar Domingez. [INAUDIBLE]. I served in military service in 1950 after graduating from the high school. I missed a [INAUDIBLE] in the military service. Then when the war broke out in Korea, it was 1950. I volunteered. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. I was not lacking the joy and the intent of a newcomer. And then the next battalion, [INAUDIBLE]. I was not lacking. On the third time when I visited, I was selected, so from there, we were regrouped [INAUDIBLE] volunteer to replace the 20th division. We were regrouped there from all volunteers from the Armed Forces of the people. My rank then was a private first class. I belonged to the artillery, so all volunteers were regrouped at camp all the time. Then when all the volunteers were there in Camp Aldinado, we created us from the branches of service where we belonged. Of course, I belonged to the artillery, so I was with the artillery group. And then parting group, medical group, every group. So we all just were already grouped, and the size of those volunteers, the number of people that we completed, we moved the [INAUDIBLE] at the time, the Port [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. Then we were regrouped again by branches of service. Of course, I was trained in separate from the field artillery, so I was with the artillery. So when everything was grouped already, artillery, infantry, medical, logistics, and others, then we moved again to Port [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] at the time. So then we started our training. I can't remember the number of months we were trained. So after the training, there was another group. We would group again to North of Korea. I cannot exactly remember the group where I belonged. So then we went to Korea. We take the LST at the time. You know about this LST? Landing ship, tank. The ship of the Korean Army of the Armed Forces [INAUDIBLE]. Landing ship, tank. They called that LST, landing ship, tank. But we were training for Korea. We retrained again. Retrained at that [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] was a mountainous area. That's where we trained. After our training, then we were shipped to Korea. That was ... I cannot remember the date, but the month was July 1950. >> '53. >> Yeah, '53, 1953. So that is it. We sailed to Korea. We rode the Philippine Navy ship, we called that LST. We called that LST. We arrived in Korea July 1950, yeah? 1953. Yeah. [INAUDIBLE]. So that is it. We really [INAUDIBLE]. That was July 1953. Excuse me. >> That was the Armistice. July 7th, 1953 was the Armistice. Do you remember when the war ... They signed the cease-fire. >> Three fire? >> Cease-fire, Armistice. >> Armistice, yeah. That was already ongoing, the Armistice was. >> Do you remember a little bit about why it took a long time for them to do the cease-fire agreement? No? >> I have no idea about that. >> So what did some ... What did you do during when you weren't fighting? >> What did you do? >> When you weren't fighting? >> Fighting? >> Uh-huh. >> Because I belonged to the artillery ... This is the battle pit. This area, we are about 7 to 10 kilometers at the battle pit. It belonged to the artillery canyon. [INAUDIBLE]. So before the infantry people could enter, advance, you had to [INAUDIBLE] with one of our ammunition. So it depends on the front line how the people just kept themselves, the enemy, because there is a radio telecommunication device overhead, and [INAUDIBLE]. So if the enemies have already moved backward, then cease-fire. The firing of the infantry people that ceased already except over here coming from land, but the Chinese communists [INAUDIBLE] come in from the [INAUDIBLE] give you password coming from Manila, [INAUDIBLE] front line somewhere along, well, shall I say ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> No, no, no. Somewhere around Yuki. That is the approximate distance from the front line where the enemies and the Chinese are in training [INAUDIBLE] from our troops, the union troops. Yeah. So that is it. That is the system of the fight. Normally, we fight in Korea at the time during the night [INAUDIBLE] during the day. >> Can you look here? Don't look there. Look here and speak a little bit louder. >> All right. >> This the camera. Don't look there. >> The fighting in Korea at the time was mostly during the night. Excuse me. During the day, everything was done with fighting, but we from the rail [INAUDIBLE] canyon, we have to pile in. [INAUDIBLE] with our service. Have seen some movements there, the enemy, and they request from us a pilot and a server from the artillery. [INAUDIBLE]. >> So you fought during the 3rd Battalion that saw a lot of battles, right? Many battles, many combats, fights, yes. >> Engagements? >> Yes, many engagements, right? >> Yes. That's why I said the fighting during that time was mostly during the night because they know [INAUDIBLE]. Many people were from that place, so all them prepared to go fight during the night, while during the day we kept defending also our positions. They were also defending their positions. But when that mess started, it's like fiesta. >> So when do you sleep? >> In our system in the artillery because we have the [INAUDIBLE], we have 10 in a team, we divided that by the infantry. So the first group starts at 6 o'clock, then after 10 o'clock, then after 3 o'clock, then after 5 o'clock. That is the system. >> And you rotate? >> We rotate, yeah. Yeah. We rotated. >> Did any of the ... >> I am referring only to the artillery. I don't know what the infantry ... The infantry people were just walking on the front line. The artillery group, we have big guns, so we have ... >> Super bazooka. Super bazooka. I saw super bazooka. >> Bazooka, for those people in the front line, bazooka. We have that. They have that. But we [INAUDIBLE]. >> What? >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> What is that? >> In our place. >> What is that? >> Cannon. >> Cannon! Cannon, oh. >> Cannon. Cannon, yeah. We had the cannon and myself. That's why sometimes, I can't understand you because during the night, our ears are popped. >> Oh! >> Up to now I can't ... Specifically the right one because I used to fire the cannon, so the blast of the cannon will affect your ears. >> Oh! No earplugs? >> No earplugs. They do not encourage us. The officers at the time were not ... Excuse me. We were not told we need that. So when you hear ... Specifically myself was the one who was pulling the lanyard of the [INAUDIBLE]. No. You cannot hear that good now. You cannot ... Let's say I'm the one firing the hose. If you do not pull that ... I'm the only one pulling it, but there is a command. There is a command on the [INAUDIBLE]. We have the command in the rear, which is [INAUDIBLE] around 50 meters back. That is the one giving the command. When they give the command ... There are six cannons, but they are just for [INAUDIBLE]. So when the six cannons are ready, you report to the one giving the command. Number one, ready to release, not in the line of [INAUDIBLE] but number one is posted as number one. Number six, again, is [INAUDIBLE] because there are six cannons [INAUDIBLE]. When the six cannons are ready, the command post, the personal at command post, "Ready?" because there is the one pulling the line. Bam! And the cannon fires. The system we used. >> What do you think about Filipinos' contributions in the Korean War? >> Filipinos? >> Yes because, if you know, there's 21 nations that fought in the Korean War all over the world, but what's so special about Filipinos? >> I cannot exactly describe it, but I belong to the [INAUDIBLE], as I said, It's about 7 or 8 kilometers away from the front line, from the infantry people, before the infantry people who are engaged in fighting, so I could not pass this. But what we hear from them is the fighting starts because the fighting starts the moment it gets dark. It starts already after the morning when it's already daylight again. That's just how we fight people. >> You're a part of the association, right? You're a member of the association? >> Oh, yeah. I'm a member of the Veteran's Association. >> Yes. Aren't you a proud of the association you're part of, a member? >> Yes. >> Right? So for, let's say, an American or some Koreans, they want to know about Filipinos in the Korean War. What would you say? "Okay, we did this. We were" ... something special about Filipinos. >> No, there's no such thing. We are equal there. Like other ... and like other UN troops of the time, especially the Thailanders, they can't understand English, and some others can't understand English. For the Filipinos, we talk English with the Americans and other UN troops. >> Oh, so it was easy to communicate? >> Right. >> Yes, easy to communicate, which is very important. Communication is very important. >> Yes. Yes. Yes, important. >> So they relied on you for other ... Right, they relied on you? Ethiopians, they couldn't speak English well, right? >> Right. >> Turkish, they couldn't speak English well. >> No. >> Yeah. >> No. No. No. They're like [INAUDIBLE]. The Turkish are there. We can't understand. We can't [INAUDIBLE], not like that. They were ready. >> Do you remember seeing Greeks, other people? Do you remember? >> Other nations, you mean? >> Yes. Yeah. >> Yes. Thailanders. What other nations? >> Greece. >> Plenty of the United Nations. I can't exactly remember. I can only remember the Thailanders, Filipinos ... No, I can't remember. >> Greece! >> And do you remember seeing Koreans? Do you remember seeing Koreans? >> The Koreans, yes. >> Civilians? >> There were troops from Koreans there already, but it's really hard to say something about the Koreans. >> Children? Orphans? >> Yeah, children, orphans, plenty. Tough job when you move them. You go to Seoul. Tough job visually to see the people [INAUDIBLE], and we have [INAUDIBLE]. We are going to come [INAUDIBLE]. >> They were so poor. >> Yes. Yes, so poor. [INAUDIBLE] poor. >> But now ... >> Yeah. >> Right? You've visited Korea. They're big now, right? Big, tall, and ... >> In Manila. In [INAUDIBLE] they can't talk English. >> Yes. >> There were many times when we go to Korea for the revisit program, and [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Yeah, I've been there in Korea. >> It's amazing, right? Yes. Yes. Yes. >> You can see the progress in the restored areas. You can't remember where was the fight, can you? >> I hope you know that ... I hope you're very proud. >> Yes. Of course I am. >> We're very thankful. We're very grateful. We're very grateful. >> Other nations, believe in us, the Filipinos, number one. We can speak English. >> Yes. And you were experienced from World War II? >> No, I did not ... >> No, I know. Not you, but Philippines. Philippines ... >> Yeah, Philippines. >> Philippines fought in World War II, so you had a trained Army. Yes. Yes. Thank you so much for your time and your service very much.
>> Well, I am Mr. Maximo Young, 94 years old. Well, my war experience started with ... I was working with a company in the Philippines. That was 1941. Later on, I was sent to States to study agriculture, and then from there, I was one of those chosen to select members of the group that our government committed to be sent to Korea. That was 1950. Now initially, before we were sent to Korea, after selecting different members to compose the 10th Battalion Combat Team, we had some training. Our training ended sometime on September, so on September 15, we made our first trip to Korea aboard [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. We left the Philippines September 15 and arrive at Korea 19 September. Upon arrival at Korea, we could see the whole area, stationed in Pusan where we landed. There were all of us armed for war. It was this time when the North Koreans invaded South Korea on 15 September the same year. So upon arrival at Pusan, our initial debarkation area, we were sent to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] for a probation period. From there, we stayed for overnight, and then the following days, we were sent further north to acclimate ourself with the area, including the weather. The weather is very different. It started while in Korea. It was always frigid, very cold. We stayed there for almost 15 days. From there on, we were attached to a US division, the 3rd Army Division of the US. From there, we were assigned an area that is south of Seoul, extending up to about 15 kilometers north of the 38th parallel. We were assigned to patrol an area which is the main line of supply used by the United Nations coming to transport men, soldiers and supplies to the front line. Now it was an incident where our group was designated to secure a certain area not to be a North Korean area. So November 11, we were sent to patrol the area to find out whether there are some North Koreans who are disturbing our supply road. Sometimes they're ambushing friendly troops and sometimes destroying vehicles that are a part of the group that fights the North Koreans. So on November 11, I was in charge of a group to reconnect the area going north. We were the first group to more or less move to reconnect the area. With us were some segments of two companies and some medical units and some support units. Now at 7:30, we left the area from somewhere in south of Korea, going to Yujeong, but our designation was to look for the enemy somewhere at [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. Along the way, our head group encountered a land mine. The land mine exploded, and all the Jeep which they were riding exploded and flew over, and two of our men were disabled, but we continued moving forward to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. Now after completing a bend, going to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], and an area which is more or less a distance from a hill, a hilly place, we encountered simultaneous burst of enemy fire suspected to be about of 4,000 deployed along that area. We were just little found out that place where we passed after were 45 areas in preparation for any ambush for any enemy that goes north. So since it was surprise attack, all of us would lie down, and then most of our men, cadet or not, because it was a very ideal place for ambush. It was river down the road, and the enemies were all deployed up on top the area. So after several bursts of fires, my men, our men, cannot move, so I was a commander of five towns. I was the fourth town. After a lull, I patrol the periscope. Anytime you have a periscope, you can see the area around you through a telescope without being exposed. I look left and right, and I found out not a single man what belongs to my group. We were about 90 to 100. All of them were flattened to the ground in that group. So as idea forward looking at the enemy, I saw some of them already more or less conferring to each other on the left side and off on the right side. Thinking on my officer [INAUDIBLE], I know they're ready to attack because nobody could fire. So what I did: I opened my tank. A tank, it has a cover. I open the hatch and went out and manned the machine gun with this part of the armament of the tank. What I did is, I cracked the .50-caliber machine gun and started firing from the left. As I continue firing, I saw some of them tumbling down, running, some of them getting out of their trenches. I swing the machine gun from left to right, aiming at those people who already were trying to plan an attack against us. I continue firing. I split about two boxes of ammunition until later on, the support fire coming from behind from our artillery. Now when I started firing, running after this soldiers who were getting out of their trenches from left to right, and after about 15 minutes, there was a support fire from behind. So after about 15 minutes, our soldiers started advancing, returning the fire. Incidentally, after that, we were able to more or less get them to surrender. After a head count, there were about 42 dead and about 201 dead. From there, we straight to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] to complete our mission. That is the first time that we encountered the North Koreans from the Filipino side is the first time we encountered these North Koreans. Now after the incident, I found out there are foreigners from other countries who also belong to the United Nations command, went down to congratulate me for what I have done because without the fire, I think all of us would have been as good as dead because we can not know. Just imagine an area where all of them, you have the commanding view of the area, and all of us were down there like the pigs that are being shot at. That was the first incident I have encountered. That was the first incident where the Philippine forces encountered the North Koreans, and that was the first victory of the Philippine army. >> What year was that? What month and year was that? >> That was 1950, 1950. >> '50, what month? >> '50. >> What month, month? >> Oh, November. >> That was during the most difficult battles. >> Yeah, that was the most difficult. >> November 1950. >> Then from there, we went north, fought there, and then from there we found out that most of those ... There were 40,000 North Koreans stationed at the area. Now when we went there, all of them dispersed because of our combined attack. Aside from us, there were support units and some planes of the Allied that supported us. >> Well, as Vice President of the Filipinos Korean War Veterans Association, what are some of the activities that you do as an association, and what do you think is important for people to know about Filipinos who fought in the Korean War? >> Well, you're asking me about the different activities we did? >> What's important about Filipinos in the Korean War? What's special about Filipinos? For example, Turkish soldiers, they never left the dead. You know? >> Yeah. >> So every country, there's something special about that country. So what would you say that you want people to know about Filipinos who fought in the Korean War? Like Thai, they were called Little Tiger. Yes. Something about Filipinos? >> Well, the Filipinos, when we arrived at the Korea, we found that most of the civilians that they're fleeing because most of those Koreans, they are uneducated. That's partially the reason why the Japanese, when they occupied Korea, they prohibited Koreans to study, so more or less, never educated them. So during the time, whenever attack, they can not do anything. And what were we observed in Korea were civilians, they don't know where to go. Children, plenty of children, the children were left alone. They were alone. They had nothing, nothing to eat, especially the families. >> So what's special about the Filipinos? >> Well, what's special about the Filipinos? >> Mm-hmm. Yeah. [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. What was your role? What was your role that made the presence of the Filipino contingent, critical because of the war or important to the war? [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] [ Chatter ] >> A significant contribution. [ Chatter ] >> Well, first, more or less, fighting against the Koreans and then helping the civilians who are in need of food and protection, security. >> I know Filipinos went to Korea even after the armistice, the 5th Battalion, right, went after, and it helped rebuild Korea. >> Yeah. >> Maybe that's a very significant contribution in the war that ... Many other nations, they left, but Filipinos, even after, they sent another battalion to help reconstruct. I think that's very significant. >> Well, the contribution that was assigned to the Philippines after the fight, they were there to, more or less, study the nuclear activities of ... Well, the Americans told them something nuclear, more or less expecting the world will continue, but incidentally, there was an armistice that lured about 1953 where they declared ... They stabilized rations. >> And I know there were 41 POWs, right? >> I have the number. Excuse me. As a result, we have 112 killed in action, 112 killed in action, and then missing in action, we have 229. And then ... wounded in action, I mean. Missing in action is 16, and we have 41 POWs, prisoners of war. Now the 41 prisoners of war, after the war, we tried to verify, follow up, their destinations. Of the 41, we were able to locate, I think, 36, 36, 36, and until now, the remaining numbers are not found. >> Really? Five of them are not found? >> Until now. >> Wow. >> We suspected that they had died, and they were never found. >> Recovered the remains? >> Now, for the POWs, we have 41. I think 6 of them are not also accounted for. The others have gone back to the Philippines. After 3 years there was ... After the armistice, there was an exchange of prisoners, and some of them came back. >> But not all? >> Yeah, yeah, yeah. >> Oh, no. The families of the POWs that never came back, so they're just waiting? >> For your information, the total number of Filipinos that participated in the Korean War was 4,720. >> Four thousand seven hundred twenty? >> Four thousand seven hundred ... >> No, I thought it was 7,200. [ Chatter ] >> I thought it was 7,200. >> Oh, no. I'm sorry. Seven thousand four hundred twenty. >> Yes. Yeah, and now in the association there are about 3,000, right, left in the association? >> No. As of last June, I could account for 1,700. >> Oh, that's it, huh? One thousand seven hundred. >> One thousand seven hundred living. >> Living. >> Living. And the others, out of the 7,420, the others that came back was assigned to different places, and we have no means of contacting them. Now out of that number, as of now, our living veterans, verified living, is about 34 living veterans. >> Thirty-four? >> Yeah, thirty-four. >> Thirty-four? >> Thirty-four, yeah. >> I thought you said 1,000 ... >> That is for the Tampa City, for the Tampa City. [ Chatter ] >> Because there was five visitors when the ... The 10th was about ... >> The 1st battalion that went. >> Yeah, that's right, battalion. >> Yes, yes. >> The 1st battalion ... >> There was only 34. >> Yeah, 34. >> And you're part of the 1st battalion. >> Yeah, the very 1st battalion. >> The 1st battalion are the oldest, right. I heard there's a 101-year-old veteran. One hundred and one, is he the oldest? >> That 100-plus ... Most of the casualties were of the [INAUDIBLE] were because of another battle that was a year long. That year-long battle started way back in April 1952. That was the time the North Koreans tried to post in order to invade the South Korean. >> Wow. One last question, have you been back to Korea? >> Yes, five times. >> Wow. Five times. >> My son, he went there last year when it was awarded the highest spirit medal in South Korea. In fact, I will give you a copy of ... >> A citation. >> ... a letter. I wanted to take the award, for sure. >> What did you think about when you first went to Korea? How did you feel? >> Well, I was single dad during the time, and I was one of the selected because I came from Fort Knox to study the armored veteran. When I went to Korea, I never thought I would be coming back because it was the time when the North Koreans were very forceful in trying to invade South Korea. Now my impression about South Korea when I was there, it was a place where people are very poor. They were very, very poor. You could see them trying to get food from us, and mostly is what I said, most of the people there are uneducated, very poor, and they have no means of life except farming. >> But now ... >> Wow, terrible. The are the best shipbuilders. >> Mm-hmm. >> In fact, they intended to open up four shipyards in the Philippines so that they will continue to build ships because shipments is a problem. You can transport anything. Back then, it was very costly. Unlimited, but shipbuilding, I think that is what the ambassador told us one time when he said, it was 3 years ago, the ambassador of South Korea, we were having a meeting. The intention of South Korea is situate that the Philippines, which is very, very poor now compared to 1950. We were the second best country, but after the World War II, everything was destroyed including our factories, our everything. Now what the ambassador told me before was that the intention of the moment of South Korea was that within 30 years they want the economy of the Philippines to be in power with Korea. In other words, they will support the Philippines' infrastructure, agriculture, everything, so that way, 30 years, that was 2013. He said 30 years, that was the intention of South Korea. Thirty years from that time, they want the economy of the Philippines to be in power with South Korea. >> I know. I visited too many countries, and when I went to the memorial today, I was amazed, and I said it's the best memorial and museum that I've ever seen in any other country. You know? >> Yeah. >> The facility, the Pepco facility? >> Yeah, yeah, yeah. >> It is amazing. >> Very amazing. [ Chatter ] >> I was so impressed. It's maintained beautifully. The museum is very nicely presented and display. The auditorium, the memorial ... >> Yes, yes. Way back 800, I think. >> Just so wonderful, and I'm very proud to know that the Korean government has been able to build that to honor and thank the veterans. So I was very proud to hear that. I hope that you are very proud when you went to Korea recently to see skyscrapers, Hyundai, Samsung, LG. Korea is very prosperous, and Koreans are successful because of your sacrifice. Yeah. >> Well, there is a way they have best fusion because the North Koreans has not gone down to South to destroy. They have a very big space.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We have those Korean Veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Ah. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm-hmm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. Mm-mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm-hmm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We are ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> You asked him one question and forgot to answer one. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> What kind of commemoration date or ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> The 22nd of October ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... the commemoration day of the Korean War veterans ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... we will have a ceremony ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] ceremony. >> ... ceremony. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] the 21st Regiment Queen [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And 87 ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] king ... >> The king who you all ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] king ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] the king, you said, the personal chief and [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] the ceremony. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Ask him [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] I know the answer you told me, but I want him to say it. What is the significance of 10, 22nd? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> It was the very first day Thailand sent army to the ship and into Korea. >> Mm. Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] Busan. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] Busan. Busan [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Mm. Mm. Mm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I went to Korean War [INAUDIBLE] 1972. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. Only 157 people. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We stayed there for 14 months. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The reason we still continue to send our soldiers even just the war already ended. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We are still ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... Because in the current time still ... >> Command. >> Command. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] command. >> ... They call United Nations command is to stay in Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And still in [INAUDIBLE] city. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> On this ... what to call ... >> United Nation command. >> This United Nation command still remained there because there was policy from the very beginning that they have this kind of policy to stay there this year. That's why they're still over there. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I think about 8 years, eight countries. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Eight countries there at that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> England. >> Switzerland. >> Switzerland. >> Australia. >> Australia. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] United Nation. >> Even nowadays, still, we have a soldier stay in Korea in this United Nation command [INAUDIBLE]. >> Even now? >> Yes. >> Oh. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We need to stay every year like a rotation sending, getting there. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Because it's so that we can, what do you call that, complete the kind of policy. You have to send in accordance with the policy of the United Nations. >> Wow, even now. >> Now. >> Yes, even until now. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Now is no longer as a volunteers, but you select and send. >> Wow. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> No more volunteers because we need only 15, but sometimes they want to apply for 200. It's going to be a problem. >> So when you went to Korea, what did they do during the rotation? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They just need to spend time for training. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They need to [INAUDIBLE] even though there is no war but like a soldier, you still need to practice training and discipline. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And also civic action. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> A civil action is like helping the civilian ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... especially in the area nearby the base, the [INAUDIBLE]. >> Where is the Thai army base located in Korea? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> But during my time, I came to [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Seven kilometers north from Seoul, 7 kilometers north. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When we don't have war, we will practice to see action. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Yeah, like doing service projects, serving the people. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> During my time, I'm taking care of the orphan. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Also [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We do arrange the doctor, medical director, to take care of their health. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And share food to the elderly women and also orphan house, orphanage house. >> So how many in total from 1950 to 1953 during the war, how many time went and how many died? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Do you remember? You asked me. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> During his time. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. During this time, around 6,000. [ Chatter ] He said in total, 13,000. >> Thirteen thousand? >> Yeah, 13,000. >> During the war, 1950 to 1953. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He said during the 23 years, around 13,000. >> Oh, 23 years all together. >> Yes, 23 years. >> All together. >> How many died? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Three hundred eighty. >> Three hundred eighty died? >> Yes. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Because at the end of the war, because of the, what do you call that ... >> Ceasefire. >> They no more fight this time. >> But 380 is a big number. >> No, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, it's not, 136. >> Oh, died. [ Chatter ] One hundred and thirty-six, that's still a big number. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Because they are babies, 18, 20. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Babies. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He said a soldier died, not so many because really good in fighting. >> Yes. Wow. Okay. Now association, let's talk about association. You're the president of the association, right? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> How many members are in the association? How many like him and how many like him? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> First of all, in charge as leader of his association. All of them came from the veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Not only [INAUDIBLE] Air Force. We have also Navy. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Because in the very beginning, we sailed a ship [INAUDIBLE] to join this war [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Also a battleship royal to the navy [INAUDIBLE] ships. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Almost at the end of the war we already brought it back ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... just when the Air Force [INAUDIBLE]. >> Air Force. >> In the association, how many veterans are remaining right now? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. [ Chatter ] >> Most are still alive. They are members of the association. [ Chatter ] >> Around 3,000. >> Three thousand. >> Members. >> Oh. >> But does that include combat veterans? >> Combat veterans? >> Combat is during the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Royal Army. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. [ Chatter ] >> What kind of activities does the association do? For example, meet significant dates like October 22nd, for the descendants scholarship? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> This association open every day except holiday and ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... we still remain [INAUDIBLE] of the veterans every day ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... because they have so many different things [INAUDIBLE] something because of the difficulties. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They want their children to receive scholarship. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We help with these kind of things. Every day, people come. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The money that we can give scholarship to the children of the veterans, we can fund anyways. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We got them from the veterans associations and also from Ministry of Defense. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Also some companies from [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When they organize for charity events, they donate it to us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And also we try to fund [INAUDIBLE] so that we can also give scholarship from our ... We can [INAUDIBLE] from, what do you call, lotteries, also. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Actually not my own [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thank you very much for the important work that you do. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There are four goals that we have. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They all can accomplish as soon as possible. >> Yes. This is my fourth one, so I think it is ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I'm so glad. We want to hear your success. We wait for that.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I went to Korea 1972. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Already kind of homeless. I didn't [INAUDIBLE]. >> Shh. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The fight only ended. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> However, soldiers still remained in Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I didn't have much chance to meet with Korean people ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... because I was in Air Force. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> My job was a pilot. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> So my base in Japan. >> Yeah. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We sent necessary things to Korea every day. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Sometimes I would stay at the Osan airport. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I'd fly to different provinces in Korea to ... >> Weapons. >> Logistic, [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The airport that we normally went to is in Gwangju. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. [ Chatter ] >> Jeju. >> Oh, Jeju Island. >> Busan. >> Busan, yes. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Our work received support from the other missions. >> When you were there, I know there were some conflicts between North and South Korea after the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] during my time there was a fight in between security armed. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> How many people like him went to Korea after the war? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He brought, because they brought [INAUDIBLE], the students went to Korea to receive. >> How many people served? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> One year we sent about 20 Air Force personnel, [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> For how many years? >> Twenty, more than 20. About 20 years, 20. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> More than 20 years. >> So after 1953 ... >> Yeah. >> ... every year, about 20 Air Force until about 1973? >> Yeah. Yes, yes. 1974, about that. >> 1974. >> Mm-hmm. >> Nobody knows this. >> No. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> No. >> I'm very happy that I'm learning this. >> Mm-hmm. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> You were there for 1 year? >> One year. >> Wow, wow. Everyone was a volunteer? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Yes. >> But you were parted of the armed military? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Air Force. >> Air Force, but you volunteered to go to Korea? >> Right. >> Okay. >> Thank you very much. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE].
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He is very lost. You went to Korea in 1950. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [INAUDIBLE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He went there by ship. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Around 15 days, travel by ship ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... and arrive at Pusan ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... on November [INAUDIBLE] 1950. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I traveled by train. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Went to a city, [INAUDIBLE] ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... to train [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> After train for 7 days ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I received an order to go to [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> To protect [INAUDIBLE] and preserve peace for [INAUDIBLE] few days. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And after that I got an order to move backward, and then pass the [INAUDIBLE] 38th parallel. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He came to [INAUDIBLE] city [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [INAUDIBLE] has fighting on the opposite side. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He try to prevent those opposite site to cross over the 38th parallel. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And during the time I joined this fight, I was so honored and very proud to be able to help Korean people, and also even share food to those [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> All Thai armies practiced the same thing. We shared food to Korean people who we can [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I practice my duty in Korea around 1 year ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... and then came back to Thailand. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> What I am most proud ... was that I was one of Army. Soldier. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I found that I am Thai person who have a heart to help our neighbor country, our good friend country when they invaded by the [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> In Asia, we call Korea as our, what you call, like a good friend country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And also Korean people have a very similar connector with Thai people. >> Have you visited Korea after the war? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I went there only twice since after the war. >> What did you think about it? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My last visit and when I compare with the time I went there during the war, so totally changed. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I was so much [INAUDIBLE] ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... economy and also socially and also transportation, everything so well developed. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I was so proud that I am part of the one who helped the country and they can see this country rise up and developed and [INAUDIBLE]. >> I hope that you're proud because Koreans all over the world are also very grateful. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> You were in Korea for 1 year. Did you see Korean civilians? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> When he went for the fight, he spent time around 15 days and then after that he came back to the place he live, around 7 day or something, and then he could be able to [INAUDIBLE] the civilian. >> When they were not fighting what did they do? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> No worry, they did not do anything. They just stayed at home because of just try to escape ... >> No, what did they, he do. He, not the civilians, not the Koreans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> The army. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> They have an activities to do with the people, and also when they have food they share with the people. >> Did they see other veterans from other countries? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> They stay in different area so we not see other nations. >> Not even Americans? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Yes, some [INAUDIBLE]. >> When he went to Korea, he met other veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> You mean when he went back to visit? >> Yeah, revisit, revisit. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> No, I don't see anyone. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He said that he went there because different nations or so were invited to Korea. >> That's why. Yeah, that's why I was saying. It must have been very emotional. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Yeah, they have a conversation asking like, "When you went there and when you go back?" >> Can you tell us, last comment, anything you want about, to the world, okay, to history, what you think Thailand's contribution in the Korean War? What's important to know about Thailand's contribution to the Korean War? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Number one in terms of heart, we really pour our heart to Korea. Second, we really want to help Korea to overcome the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And we want to end this war as soon as possible. >> I hope that the war, because it still didn't end, will end in your lifetime ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... and that there will be peace, and one Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]
>> Well, actually, I really don't know from where to begin. It's all the same. I was a young captain with Second Battalion of the Parachute Regiment when we got orders to move by air to South Korea to supplement the effort of Custodian Force India, which consisted of five regular battalions with the brigade headquarter. Perhaps Custodian Force was part of Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission with its headquarters at Pyongyang, and they [INAUDIBLE] because our job was essentially to repatriate the prisoners of war. No decision had been taken how to dispose of the prisoners of war. So we ... The brigade went there by sea, but having reached there, they realize that the force was not adequate to look after and manage the prisoners-of-war camps, so we, my battalion, which was the parachute battalion, was moved, and the Globemasters were provided by America. I had never seen a Globemaster because the biggest aircraft we had was a Dakota with a capacity of 20 and a Fairchild Packet, which was the World War II vintage aircraft with a capacity of about 15, 30 to 40, and this Globemaster could carry in two tiers about 130 troops fully with their kit, so it was a great experience really. We stopped at Clark Air Base in Philippines early in the morning. Now it was an eye-opener. It was about, I think, 3 or 4 a.m., and the troopers were already lining up to have their breakfast, and we, you see, the Indians had by and large in that period of that stage of our development was hardly 5 feet, 7 inch, 5 foot, 6 inch, and there we saw Afro-Americans lining up, and it was a tremendous experience, and the amount that they could eat for breakfast, it was really ... From there, we were taken to Japan, and I think it was Tachikawa or some airport, and then we were transferred to a battleship, which took us to the Incheon airport. There Mr. Syngman Rhee was the President of South Korea. He thought that Indians were pro-communist. Although India was the chairman of Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, which consisted of India as chairman, and we had a very famous general officer, General Thimayya, who later on also served in the United Nations. Besides India, there was Poles and Czechoslovakian representing the communists and I think if I recollect Norway or Sweden ... >> Sweden. >> ... [INAUDIBLE] the other part of this force, of this headquarter, and Custodian Force India under the general officer consisting of five battalions I mentioned earlier, so Syngman Rhee refuse to let us go by train from Incheon or go through South Korea to the demilitarized zone where we were destined, our Custodian Force was placed. Again, it was a great experience for me as a young officer. Helicopters were unknown in India in those days, but seeing helicopters from the ship like you see ... It was an experience again. The helicopters were small. Just they could take about four or five along with their complete as we call kit [INAUDIBLE] operational kit. Everybody goes with it. And we were put in the demilitarized zone, and we landed there. I was then [INAUDIBLE] rifle company, which generally consists about 18 men, and it was about 5 in the evening, and it was getting bit dark when I was given orders to relieve another company and take over straightaway the prisoner-of-war camp. There was no head count. I was just told that about 500 prisoners of war were in that camp. There was about five or six camps there. And lo and behold, lo and behold, middle of the night, and it was a subzero kind of temperature. We were not equipped really for the Korean climate. We were not equipped. There was a breakout, and our sentries on the [INAUDIBLE] were firing to stop the exodus. It was a nightmare. We were in our under [INAUDIBLE] sleeping, and suddenly this commotion was taking place, and perhaps they had timed it also. They knew they were very seasoned, those who had fought the war, but some of them were hard-core communists who never wanted anybody to either go to South Korea or to any Western countries, and they were creating terror in the camp, so any way to continue with this breakout, lot of them got through. They were very keen to go to South Korea or to go to south or to [INAUDIBLE] anywhere else, but it was a major setback for me that this happened when I was in command of the camp. That's a different story. I had to face a bit of disciplinary action for that. Then we were taken. You see, I appreciated the amount of hard work put by the generals of the American army to prepare a camp for about 800 soldiers and officers and be centrally heated. That itself was quite an experience that they were able to set up, and it was just [INAUDIBLE] canvas sheets and with some kind of heating arrangement in the center where perhaps diesel was being burned to keep the warm and also the ... You had the wooden floors and things like that and ... But one thing was that our senior commanders never wanted us to take on the United Nations, the American dress. They wanted us to remain ... They permitted the troops to wear clothes to be comfortable, but to officers, whatever we were entitled to, then what we had taken, which was certainly not ... wasn't adequate but to set an example that the leaders themselves were being given Indian rations whereas the troops were allowed to have rations with the other United Nation troops were. Initially we [INAUDIBLE] because we were uncomfortable. >> Mm. >> The clothing wasn't warm enough. Neither was the food. It took us hours by pressure cookers to cook the [INAUDIBLE] and the [INAUDIBLE] and all that whereas the troops were being fed the Californian oranges and the lamb and the ... all that frozen lamb and nice cheese. Anyway, gradually we were able to convince the senior [INAUDIBLE] that it is not [INAUDIBLE]. It's all right to set an example, but an example should also be related to the actualities on the ground and the situation. Now the ... We had also ... A hospital was also there to cater for. Let me concentrate first on the behavior of the core communist leaders. They had created cells in the compound, deep cells, wanted to give you protection against the climate, and second was that they used to torture those perhaps who were very keen to break away ... >> Mm. >> ... and torture them so badly that they will kill you, and in the morning, what you saw was two, three bodies being put on the gate of the ... which was a barbed wire kind of gate. It was a very tough situation, and you could do nothing. We could do nothing against the torture that was going on in the camps. Once we settled down, then I'm relating to what my job was. I was given the job of presenting prisoner of war from my camp to the team of NNRC, Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, team, and each prisoner of war was exposed to them in a tent or something like that [INAUDIBLE] tent. >> Mm. >> And there each ambassador are part of that team will bring messages and those recorded messages but played requesting these fellows to come back to their own motherland, go back to North Korea, to China, wherever. But there was no force involved in this whole exercise, but as luck would ... bad luck for me. And these prisoners used to restrict so that they carry no weapons or no sharp ... to harm the ... There is a bit of representative of the NNRC. And we used to strip them, and as I said, my bad luck came. One of the prisoner had kept a blade somehow. I don't know where. And he slashed one of the faces of [INAUDIBLE]. There was a commotion. >> Wait. This is very ... >> He had hidden a blade, a shaving blade, somehow, which we didn't know this, and he slashed the faces of one of the members of the Neutral Nation Repatriation Commission's team member. Anyway, he was overpowered, and of course I had to face the music later on through my normal army channels, but the officer who was conducting an inquiry into the whole thing was very considerate that it wasn't something intentional. There was no motivation on my part to relax, and therefore I was honorably ... And it was quite a bit of tension [INAUDIBLE] as a young officer I had then about 6 years service, and I was about 26 years old then. >> Mm. >> These were the ... But the life generally was very made reasonably comfortable. Later on, they permitted us to have the [INAUDIBLE] and all those facilities with the other United Nation troops were having. But what ... As a young officer, it was an eye-opener, and you match yourself professionally and otherwise in smartness, in alertness, in [INAUDIBLE]. We ... I thought, "I am as good or even better in a sense than officers from the other ... some of the other countries," so it built a lot of confidence in me as an individual, and perhaps that's the reason that I rose to be the vice chief of the army later on in life. >> Wow. Vice chief of the army? >> Right. Right. >> Wow. >> So we used to have ... Once I was taken off from that and I was made adjutant of the battalion, that means I was not involved in the looking after the prisoner of war but managing the affairs of the unit. We had a comfortable stay there. Our officers' mess was there. All the facilities were given, even [INAUDIBLE]. >> Mm. >> And we used to naturally sit in a huge transport carrier and which was warm enough to [INAUDIBLE]. I remember seeing a movie of Nat King Cole, the great singer of those days, and the son I remember, "What a Beautiful World," "What a Beautiful World," which was a great song in those days. Then we celebrated our festivals, Diwali and all that, and showed to the rest of the [INAUDIBLE] of the [INAUDIBLE] and the others. Perhaps it must have been explained to you that we were five battalions. That means a brigade nearly would service about 5,000 troops. Indian troops were there, which is quite a contribution. Do not [INAUDIBLE] but later on. >> For how many years? For how many years? How long? >> Oh, yes. It was in 1953, '54. That means we came back about 10 months, 10 months. We were ... >> In 10 months, there were 5,000 of you? >> Mm-hmm. >> There were 5,000 of you? >> Yes. >> Five thousand? >> Yeah. >> For 10 months? >> Ten months. Yes. >> Wow. >> Yes. >> Because before the war, the unit was very small, less than 400. >> [INAUDIBLE] it was [INAUDIBLE] which was part of the ... But this was ... I'll show you the plate I have. >> Mm-hmm. Later. We can ... >> Later. We have a plate for that. Then also we got a chance to visit the NNRC headquarter, which was at Pyongyang, North Korea, and now North Korea, and there was again a world of difference between the attitudes, the reading of the situation. It was entirely [INAUDIBLE] aggressive. You could see there the aggressiveness on the part of ... The Chinese were still there too, but we were dealing with only prisoner of war. >> How long did that take, that process? So the armistice is signed, okay? >> Mm. >> And then so ... Then you start negotiating, right? >> Mm. >> The army, not negotiating. The negotiation was already done. >> Unite ... You see, United Nation was part of the fighting, so this was a ... I think under Geneva Contention or some, a Neutral Nation Repatriation Commission. Repatriation, which is a self-explanatory thing, was to repatriate or give an opportunity to the prisoner of war where they want to go, but again, it may be premature. Unfortunately, we were not able to achieve our task. No final decision was taken, and we had ... We returned the prisoners of war back to the neutral nations, and we came back ... >> So that ... >> ... without achieving the aim. >> And it took 10 months? >> Yeah, less than 10 months. >> Mm. So what happened to the person that slipped or slipped a person, the POW? >> I wouldn't know because that [INAUDIBLE] was taken by the Neutral Nations Repatration Commission. >> Was he Chinese or North Korean? >> Again, I wouldn't know. >> Mm. >> I wouldn't know because there was not written that they are North Korean, or they are Chinese or whatever. >> Because I know POW is still a very ... That's why the war lasted 3 years. >> Yeah. >> I heard ... >> Yeah. >> ... that after 1 year, by 1951, the battle was already kind of decided. It was all within the 30 ... along the 38th parallel. >> Parallel, yes. >> And it was just up and down and up and down, up and down, not different parts, but the reason why it dragged was because of the POW issue. >> Mm, mm. >> And it was hard to come to ... >> You would be surprised that I think [INAUDIBLE] came to India. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> And ... >> Who did? >> And ... >> POWs? >> Uh-huh, and they were now ... They are part of our association, and they are businessmen there in Delhi. >> Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. Wait. What do you mean? The two are Koreans? North Koreans? >> South Koreans. >> South ... Okay. After the war. >> South ... >> After the war. >> South Korean prisoner, they came to India. >> Oh. >> They opted for India. [INAUDIBLE]. >> They were captured by the enemy. >> Yes. >> And then when they were repatriated, they said they want to go to India. >> Yes. >> Interesting. So they are ... >> Actually, this fellow, the [INAUDIBLE], should be able to tell you exact name of this person. He was a businessman. >> Oh. >> Yes. >> Well, I guess ... >> But I don't think he is ... I don't know, but we keep on meeting him. We have get-togethers, association get-togethers, and he attends that. Whether he has given up his citizenship, that I am not aware whether he is [INAUDIBLE]. >> So the association has members of both the parachute, the ambulance and the ... your unit, right? >> Not mine only. Custodian Force India was the executive branch of the Neutral Nations Repatration Commission. >> And that was 5,000? >> That was 5,000 troops with a [INAUDIBLE] hospital, big hospital, not only an ambulance [INAUDIBLE] ambulance but a big hospital with all facilities. I think they could maintain ... The back strength was about 50 or so, big, big hospital. >> So all together less than 6,000 Indians went to Korea? >> Yes. >> And luckily only one died, luckily. >> Mm. >> How did he die? >> Hmm? >> What kind of accident? How did he die? >> How did he die? >> Mm-hmm. >> I don't know the ... >> The one Indian ... >> ... actual ... But again, while we were there, I mentioned their aggressiveness. They even want the General Thorat. He was a general officer of the Indian army who was the head of the Custodian Force. They were maltreating some prisoners, so he went in to see for himself, and there this aggressive lot, must be North Koreans or Chinese, they made him captive ... >> Hmm. >> ... a general officer, and then a big operation was ... More force was brought, and he himself was a seasoned World War II veteran. >> Hmm. >> So he was able to convince them that they cannot keep holding onto him. He will be free, so it is better that they do it in a peaceful manner rather than bloodshed. >> Hmm. >> And he was able to convince to them because the troops have then ... We were part of that to take action if something goes wrong. >> Hmm. >> So these kind of situations were ... Then we had ... On a Diwali day, I remember I led the ceremonial parade of the normal ... And we put up Malcolm ... I wonder if you ... You may not have heard. Malcolm is a martyr. How long you been in India? >> Two days, 3 days? >> Malcolm is an exercise. It's to strengthen your muscles and things like that. A greasy pole taller than this, about 15 feet, which you climb, a greasy pole, so you climb by maneuvering your body in a manner, and you reach on top, and then in a pyramid sort of fashion, more will join like that, then display ... And it was subzero. I think it about minus 10 or 15, and they are absolutely naked. >> Mm. >> [INAUDIBLE]. So what I mean is that a cultural sort of exchange was also there besides the military parade and things like that [INAUDIBLE]. >> Because there were so many different cultures there. >> Yes. >> So many different cultures. >> Rest of the countries were there. >> Yes. So it was very interesting. >> Have you been back to Korea? >> Yes. I went there in 2002. >> For the first time? >> No, 2002, yes, only once. I went there once. >> That was during World Cup. >> During the [INAUDIBLE] so was absolutely ... There were nothing. There was nothing standing in the capital, and one was really surprised to see in 2002 the development which had taken place. I think its credit goes to the South Korean or Korean as a whole, I would say, that the sense of discipline, the sense of dedication and also perhaps motivation through their education, through their parents, through their teachers, through the general society that they have been able to achieve wonders. >> I think Koreans have a strong sense of duty, and we are very grateful people, and I believe that we recognize that so many foreigners came to Korea to defend our freedom and that we owe it to all those who served to really rise above, rise from the ashes of war to become successful and prosper, and I ... Although I'm Korean American, I'm very proud when I hear that the Korean government really treats the veterans with the utmost respect ... >> Oh, yes. >> ... and gratitude. >> We've been receiving signed by the president of South Korea messages of this gratitude and also this system of ... And it is maintaining the link with the next generation and the next generation. Already the grandchildren are ... They go on this kind of program where they are taught. They mingle with people from all the countries, and also, I think they are even offered now scholarships. >> Yes. >> Yes. Thereby, you can opt to take a job even after to learn Korean language, and, yes, all these facilities are being given. >> Yeah. >> And we are really surprised that while ... Even China, China in 1949, '50, was much behind India in its GDP, and even throughout [INAUDIBLE] reign, it's only [INAUDIBLE] or somebody. When he became president, I think he became president after [INAUDIBLE] that he brought the technical know-how. Firstly, they were so proud that they disconnected. They thought that the Soviets were too overpowering and neutralizing their character, and so they gave that up, and then they had all the technology made up with Americas and see what they have achieved. They have become ... They are a superpower now. >> Mm. >> And so is South Korea. They are known as five tigers of Southeast in development in technology, in all sphere of activity. >> Mm-hmm. >> I wish that we in India could also somehow become a little more disciplined [INAUDIBLE] because, through discipline, we can achieve. It also moderates your character, your integrity, but in spite of our teachings, we are really civilizational, somehow the ... I shall be saying, but somehow the leaders, the political leaders and the bureaucrats have affected the development side. >> Mm. >> But it is improving. >> Yeah. >> It's improving. >> Yeah. >> Yes, and there is a hope. >> Yes, and I have so many Indian-American friends that they're ... The diaspora, they're very, very, very prosperous, and they'll bring back that kind of knowledge and ... because that's what Chinese ... >> Where are you staying in? >> I ... >> Stay USA? >> Washington, D.C. >> Washington, D.C. >> Yes. >> Yes. >> And there's an Indian-American congressman because I worked in Congress for a long time, and, yes, I think all over the world with many of the diaspora bringing back the knowledge and just the sense of, I guess, more discipline, like you said, because when you go abroad and you're not in your home country, you have to work as harder. >> Harder. >> And that's why I feel like I've achieved the American dream because, for my parents who sacrificed their life to come to America for us, we think we got to succeed, right? I think that's the same analogy of the Korean people. The parents all over the world, the veterans, came and sacrificed, so the Korean people think, okay, for them, to honor them, the people and the country, they have to succeed, and so I hope that ... I'm very glad you got to see modern Korea with the tall skyscrapers. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> Yes. Everybody says there was only one bridge over Han River. Now there's 16 bridges, and I ... There's Samsung. There's Hyundai. There's ... all over the world. And I hope when you see that, that you feel very proud, that you were part of that making. >> Yes. >> Mm. I really hope that, and that's why I wanted to come, and I wanted to just ... I know you know, and you are proud, but it's also nice to hear it again, to say thank you again. >> Tremendous, tremendous. >> Yeah. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> So I do want to say thank you. >> Yeah. >> Oh, in the Korean custom like in New Year or when you pay respect to the elder, we bow. >> Mm. >> That's the proper way of saying thank you, so I wanted to actually do that because this is ... I tried ... This is not sorry, but I tried to wear something a little bit kind of Indian to pay respect for you, so I'm going to do that because that's what we do, and I will say thank you the proper way that I was taught to do.
>> My name is Levinjel A. Banaje. I had joined the Army in 1948 and retired in 1986 as a lieutenant general. When I joined the Army, I had volunteered for parachute duties, and so I had the opportunity of joining 60 Parachute Field Ambulance as a lieutenant in 1950. This unit, 60 Parachute Field Ambulance, was India's contribution to the United Nations in the war against North Korea. North Korea had invaded South Korea, and the case was taken up, and as such, the United Nations send help to South Korea to fight the North Koreans. India's contribution to this was a field medical unit, and 60 Parachute Field Ambulance was selected. This unit sailed in a U.S. warship [INAUDIBLE] Johnson on 8th November '50 and landed at Pusan, the present Busan, on 20th November 1950. This unit proceeded to Daegu, and then as the war was supposed to be finishing, we were rushed to the front area to join the 8th Army, which was there at Pyongyang. So having spent a few days at Daegu, the unit moved to Pyongyang, and we landed in Pyongyang on 29th November 1950. We hardly stayed at Pyongyang for a few days when the Chinese troops moved in, and the whole 8th Army had to move back. So we went back south of Seoul in a train, as well as with our [INAUDIBLE], and we are told to join the headquarters of the 8th Army, the Yongsan as we called it, on 4th of December. Sixth of December, we came back to Seoul, and we were allotted to give medical cover to 27th British Brigade. This British Brigade was the second brigade with us counterrouted by the British Army. They had the 28th Brigade also. The 60 Field Ambulance, which was named 60 Indian Field Ambulance in Korea, was allotted to British Brigade, and throughout that in Europe and Korea, it remained with the British Brigade. The field ambulance provides medical cover to the fighting troops in the forward areas. It's mobile. So you can move back and forth, but the advantage of this parachute field ambulance is that it had two surgical teams, so we could do life-saving operations right at the forward areas. After moving back from Seoul, the war went as a ding-dong type, sometimes going up, sometimes down, and we had been looking after the British, American and Korean troops as well as some prisoners of war. The unit was not fully mobile in the sense that the vehicles which was with the unit could not move the whole unit at a stretch, so the unit divided into two parts. The forward section stayed with one surgical team, and the other rear went back to Daegu with the other surgical team. That happened sometime in January 1951. The forward unit became a part of 27th Brigade and moved on further from Seoul to a place called Uijeonbu. The rear detachment, which was the mediant supply stores for this medical unit, went back to Daegu. They also had a surgical team, and they started looking after the civil hospital at Daegu. So by 9th February '51, a fully functional civil hospital at Daegu was being done by the rear troops of the 60th Indian Field Ambulance. The forward detachment after that went on various movements, at times forward, at times retreat, giving support to the 27th British Brigade. Being a parachute unit, the commanding officer warranted the services of his surgical team to the 187 RCT, the Regimental Combat Team of the U.S. Army, for any operation which they desired, which took place on the 18th March in Operation Tomahawk at Munsan-ni, a surgical team of the England field ambulance took part in the same operation, along with 187 RCT, Regimental Combat Team, and did a good job there. The other detachment, the forward detachment, which was with the 27th Brigade, took part in the operation throughout their tenure in Korea. There have been few important operations, one at Kapyong in which a lot of casualties were looked after by the Indian Field Ambulance. By the middle of year 1951, the Commonwealth Division was formed, and the Indian Field Ambulance became a part of the Commonwealth Division, giving medical cover to the same 28th Brigade, instead of the 27th British Brigade. Commonwealth Division was formed on 28th July. The unit took part from Operation Tomahawk with various operations which was given to the British Brigade and the Division for which they were given the Meritorious Unit Citation by the U.S. Army. This took place on 17th August at Daegu, and the Meritorious Unit Citation was given to the 60 Indian Field Ambulance. On the 17th, similar citation was given by the Korean Army. I don't remember the name of the general who did it, but this happened there at Daegu in a parade, the citation by the Korean Army was given to this unit. After that, there has been various operations, one of them being Op Commando by the Commonwealth Division in October of '51 in which this Indian Field Ambulance took a major part and did a good job looking after two important battalions, the 3rd Royal Australian Regiment and the Northumberland Fusiliers. The rear detachment has been looking after the particular hospital and have treated more than about 40,000 patients, outpatients, looking after the civilians in this particular period. >> Wow, 40,000? >> Yeah, they were as outpatients. >> Wow. >> That was ... After that, the war has been on a ding-dong type advance-and-retreat, and the forward detachment was involved in looking after this British Brigade. I was particularly lucky because I was all the time along with the forward detachment, and so I have been taking part in most of the operations which the Commonwealth Division and the British Brigade had to do. >> So you were a surgeon? >> No, as a general duty medical officer. >> General duty medical. >> There you go. >> So as a general duty medical officer, what did that entail? What did you do? >> It was more of a life-saving first aid which you do, bandaging wounds ... >> Wounds. >> ... splints and giving general surgeons [INAUDIBLE] >> So immediate. >> Immediate, and evacuating to the rear. >> Why is it called a parachute, 60th Parachute? >> Because all the troops are paratroopers. >> Oh, really, everybody? >> Everybody. >> Even you? >> Yes. >> Wow. >> Oh, I have it, see here. My son also joined the Army later, and he is also a paratrooper. >> Really? So you are trained as a paratrooper ... >> As a doctor. >> ... and a doctor. >> A doctor, yes, that is the advantage of the ... >> You need to learn how to parachute. >> Yes. >> You know, the paratroopers. >> So right now the 60th Ambulance in Agra, they do ... They parachute ... >> Yes, all are paratroopers. They all qualify. >> Oh, but not medical? >> Medical, yes. >> Them, even now? >> Yes. >> Not only there in the Korean War, even now? >> No, they have because we have to fight ... and it has to stay. Anytime an operation ... >> So they're paratroopers and medical officers even now? >> Yes, yes, even now. They go on changing. They're all doctors, and they are trained. So if there is a requirement, straight away they are brought. >> Wow. Did you know that? >> Yeah. >> That is how the commanding officer volunteered our services ... >> Yes, I wanted to ask. So how many total went, and how many were wounded, and how many had died? >> We had been there for nearly 3 years. >> Okay. >> So I won't be able to give you all the figures, but we had our troops. I remember no one was killed during the war, but a driver lost his foot, blown up by a mine trying to evacuate divisions. Another driver lost his arm by a mortar, and there were a few other minor injuries, but these two major injuries I remember. >> And how many, do you think, in total, Indians went to fight for Korea, at least in the field unit? You know? >> In this, 317. >> Three hundred seventeen. >> Out of us, there were 17 officers, 10 JCOs and 304 other ranks. The JCOs is Junior Commissioned Officers. >> Okay. >> And the rest are troops, various, as you call it in America, sergeants, corporals, lance corporals, that sort of thing. >> And what was your rank when you went? >> I was a captain. >> You were a captain. >> Captain. >> How old were you when you went? >> I joined '46. I was, let's see, 26. We went in '50, so I was 24. >> Twenty-four. >> I was 24 at that time. >> And you went in 1950. So you are now 91. >> I'm 91 now. >> Did the soldiers, did the military people who went to Korea, did they volunteer, or were they drafted? >> Here we volunteered for parachute duties, and after that, when a unit moves, you move anywhere. >> Okay, so the ... >> You don't have to volunteer for parachute duties. >> Okay, you volunteer for parachute, but the military sent you to Korea. >> And then what anybody wants us to do, we are sent. >> Okay. So most of the people that went to Korea, when they came back, they still served? >> They went to different places. >> But they all stayed in the military? >> They stayed in the military. Yes, they are all regular troops. >> So if you really think about it, the Indians that went to Korea were very experienced. >> Yes, they had been in the Kashmir War before that. >> The reason why I say that is I interviewed many veterans, right. >> Mm-hmm. >> They were 16, 17. They volunteered. They didn't know anything about war, and they were just young soldiers sometimes seeking for adventure, but I think Indians were different. They sent serious, experienced ... >> We had a part of the unit, and then you hold the unit. >> Wow, that's amazing. So when you came back from Korea ... >> Yes? >> After 1 year, right? >> No, I stayed there 3 years. >> You stayed there for 3 years? >> Nearly 3 years. >> Wow. >> The unit, this was what they do. All the units which went to Korea from the rest of the countries, they used to go back after 1 year, but this Indian Field Ambulance stayed for nearly 3 years. >> Everybody? >> Not everybody, the people went on coming back, some of them. I'm one of the longest, but there was some ... >> Who decided for you to stay 3 years, you or the military? >> Military. >> Uh-huh. >> Unless ... >> So you were high-ranking? >> No, not high-ranking. They decide who will come back. >> Well, maybe they wanted you to stay because you are really good at ... >> No, not particularly. Partly I will say that is correct because they have to get officers volunteering for doing parachute duties and going to Korea. When we went, our doctors ... I won't say the whole unit was, but about 60 to 70 percent of the troops, they're qualified paratroopers. The rest had joined, but they had not qualified so far. >> It's incredible because I know, so for example, in America, 1.8 million went, okay? And 54,000 died. So, of course, it's a big war, but even in America, Korean War is called the Forgotten War. You know? >> Yeah. >> But in India, I know it was right after India was independent. Right? India gained independence, and then shortly after, you went to Korea. >> Yeah. >> But why do you think very, very, very, very, very, very few people know about India's contributions in the Korean War? >> It's just a small unit. Actually, it depends on the number of troops given because apart from India, there were about 12 nations that took part. >> Yes. >> Some of them also, as you said, Norway, Sweden, they got a hospital ship or a MASH ... >> Yes, Jutlandia, Jutlandia, yes. >> ... and the Philippines. There's so many other troops. They just sent a battalion. Battalion being about 600 or 700 troops, fighting troops, mind you. >> Yes. >> Yes, except for ... >> Who flew your plane? >> The American ... >> British? >> Oh, went we went to Korea? >> No. We went by ship. >> I know. I know, but you're paratroopers, right? >> That was the Italian-American operation. One, as I told you, 187 RCT, the Regimental Combat Team. That's ... >> So you flew with them and then jumped with the Americans? >> Yes, the Amerns. We volunteered because we had a surgical team. The Regimental Combat Team had their own medical supply, but they didn't have a surgical team, so we volunteered. So our surgical team, one surgical team, went with them, and then ... >> How many people in one? >> Twelve. >> Twelve? >> Twelve. >> Twelve. >> Surgeon anesthetist and two doctors. >> And ... >> There's others helping him. >> How often did you go with them in combat? >> No, no. That was only operation [INAUDIBLE], Operation Munsan-ni. >> Munsan-ni? >> Yeah. >> So for 3 years, okay? Describe to me maybe your everyday, typical, average day. You stayed there for 3 years. >> Three years. >> Yeah, so, you didn't ... Did you have to take care of the patients every day? I mean ... >> The patients are there. We had a small ward. The patients come here. You look after them. They may be outpatients. Just give them medical care, and they go back. Of if they had, sort of, to be kept as a patient, we had wards where the patients are kept and looked after. Or if they are still serious, we send them to go back to the MASH. >> To the MASH? >> Yes. >> And then the MASH sends some ... >> MASH looked after ... Anyway ... >> So you are even more urgent care than that? >> Yes. We're the earlier care. >> Okay. >> The first time ... >> This is so interesting. >> So it's a ... >> So you were like the emergency room? >> Yes. The first, what we look after ... >> Yes, yes. >> ... giving the life-saving treatment and evacuate ... >> And then send to MASH? >> As soon as possible because being a field unit, we had the bigger ambulance and the smaller Jeep ambulance, so we quickly second them back. >> Okay. >> That drove to the MASH. >> Okay. So you had American and British patients, but did you see other patients from other countries? >> No. It was mainly British, British and Australian, New Zealanders, being a part of the Commonwealth Division. >> Part of the Commonwealth ... >> And some Americans, when we were part of the American operation, and also sometimes Koreans who had ... the South Koreans, not bad ... >> Not civilians though? >> Civilians? Yes. >> Really? >> Civilians also, if they are wounded. Villagers, they came. Civilians ... Now that is entirely different from the civilian hospital being done at Daegu. That was separate, running as a hospital. Half the unit was there at Daegu, and we used to alternate them. Same people used to go to the forward areas, and the others from the forward used to come back to the rear for a change and stay, and then we can go to the forward areas. So forward, so it changed all the time, wherever the ... >> Yeah, wherever the troops ... >> But you had a base at Daegu? >> Base at Daegu. >> Daegu. Oh, this is so interesting. >> Our resources of field rations and others, which used to come from India, used to go to Daegu and then send forward. >> Daegu, okay. So you ate Indian food? >> Yes. >> Because I asked Ethiopia, because I came from Ethiopia here. I said, "What did you eat?" >> Yeah. >> They couldn't eat Ethiopian food. >> No, no. >> Yeah, they didn't. >> Yeah, but ... >> But you did? >> Yes. >> Yes. >> No Korean food? >> Korean food? No. Because ... >> So you had cooks and everything there? >> Cooks? Yes. The unit consisted of everything, all types, the tradesmen we called them. We had cooks. We had barbers. We had washermen washing clothes. >> Really? >> Because, you know, some, I think American, many other troops, they had Korean houseboys, Korean ... >> Yes. >> Yes, right? But you didn't? >> No, no. We didn't have any because we ... We had everything, including barbers. We had a dentist also. That was ... >> You had dentists? >> Dentists also. The 17 officers, we had two dental surgeons. >> Really? >> Yes. >> For both the wounded and for you? >> Yeah, yeah. Dentist was there. >> Wow. >> Looking after and also because they ... And a field ambulance has this dental officer also. >> Yes, yes. Oh. >> Yes. >> And nurses? >> No. >> No women? Nothing else? >> We used to call nursing orderly. They used to do the nursing jobs. They're specially trained, like operation groom assistants, physiotherapies, laboratory technicians. We have all these things, but they've all been trained as paratroopers. >> So were you married before you went to Korea? >> No, I was not married. >> So you married after? >> We had married persons also there. I'm not. >> Well, good, because you stayed there for 3 years. If you were married, that would have been difficult. So you came back and you got married and you had ... >> Yes. >> Yes, and your son is also a paratrooper? >> My son is also a paratrooper. He's in the Army. >> Really? Even now? >> Yes. He's a brigadier in Lucknow. >> In ... Where? >> At Lucknow, in the UP. >> But not in the 60th Field Unit. >> No. He served in 60 Field Unit. >> Oh, he did? >> He was a part of 60 for quite some time. >> Wow, wow! So do you have other children that are also ... >> No, just one son. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] Left side [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Do you have ... Did you ever go back to Korea? >> Yes. >> You did? >> I did. >> When? >> I have been ... I went ... The first batch of revisit to Korea took place in 1991. >> Yes? >> And I was the only chap from India that went there. >> Wow! >>Because I had been there. >> 1991? >> 1991. >> What did you think when you went to ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This is, of course ... >> Of course, [INAUDIBLE] >> This is ... >> Your son? >> That's my son. >> Oh. >> And my wife. >> Okay, and you? >> And me. >> Wow! >> This was while I was serving, and this is when I returned. That was my family, but unfortunately ... >> A little higher? Okay. Thanks. >> This is ... And unfortunately I lost my wife and my grandson. >> Oh. I'm so sorry to hear that. >> So that is ... >> Well, I know you lost your grandson, but we have ... You have a new, one more Korean granddaughter. I say ... I call all the Korean War veterans around the world my grandpas because ... >> This is lovely. >> Yes, because I say if you didn't go there in Korea and fight for Korea, I wouldn't be here. >> So nice of you. >> And I really mean it, and that's why ... You know, I used to work for the United States Congress for 7 years. I was chief of staff to a member of Congress. He represents [INAUDIBLE]. He was a Congressman for 46 years, and he decided to retire when President Obama retired. And before I start a new career with a new Congressman, I said, "You know what? God has been so good to me. I've been living the American Dream, you know? How many child, women, young person of an immigrant family in America were in politics?" As you know it's still white-dominated, men, and here I was, and I said, "Wow. I'm so grateful." So I said, "I am going to take a break, and I am going to visit all my grandpas all over the world." >> So nice of you. >> All over the world and say thank you because many of you are very old now. You're not young anymore, and I wanted to say thank you, but also I wanted you to remember that me, not only me but my friends, my family, even Koreans in Korea and all over the world, we don't forget. >> Yeah. >> You know? Right? We don't forget. >> So nice of you. So nice. >> Yes, yes, and I know when you visited Korea in 1991, I'm sure they said thank you. >> Very happy now. They're happy too. >> And maybe the Korean embassy here, right? >> Yeah, no. They have been looking after ... given so many sort of citations and others. It is very, very rewarding, and it is another thing. >> Yeah, so, I said ... >> And the best part is, having seen the country that time in 1950, '51 and '52, '53 and visiting Korea now: What a difference! >> You must be so proud! >> Yes, proud! How can a country which was in that state at that time, within these few years, come up to this height? >> It was in rubbles, nothing. >> There was one bridge over the river in Seoul those days. >> Yes, the Han River. >> Han River. >> Yes. I think now ... >> Unfortunately I have donated recently my personal album to the museum. It's the Korean Embassy at Lucknow, and these are all there. There's all the pictures of the Korean thing. >> Oh. >> What I did was, they wanted my father, when he was here. He kept all the paper cuttings of the period. >> Wow. >> Of the ... >> Oh, when you were in Korea. >> When we were in Korea. >> All the paper. >> In the newspaper, and he wrote down even the announcements on India Radio. >> Wow! >> And when I came back after 3 years from Korea, he gave it to me as a booklet. >> Oh! >> And that, along with my own personal album ... >> That is ... >> ... which I had from Korea taken, I hand it over to the Korean Embassy. >> Wow! >> It's there now in Seoul in their national museum. >> Museum, War Museum! >> War Museum in Seoul, it is there. >> You know, after my last, final destination is Seoul. I go to, first, Busan, where the cemetery is. >> Yes. >> And then I go to Seoul, where the War Museum is. I will go and find your ... >> Yes, you'll see! >> Wow, that's so amazing! >> I have been to Korea three times. >> Wow. >> The last time of course was the year 2000 when it was the 50th anniversary. >> Yes, yes. It was huge. >> So the 50th anniversary. >> So my boss, he's a congressman, but he also was a Korean War veteran. And he went to the 50th anniversary too. >> That's really ... >> Yes. >> That's the last time I went. That was in 2000. >> Well, thank you, so I think I saw some pictures over there of you when you were a soldier. Can you show? Can we go and see? >> Yeah. Unfortunately ...
>> Yes, my name is Colonel Melese Tessema. I'm the Korean War Veterans Association president presently. I've been to Korea during the war, the second battalion, and the journey was very long. From Addis to Djibouti, we took train, and from there we back on the ship, American military ship named [INAUDIBLE]. Then we arrived through Pusan port. Then your previous president, Syngman Rhee, received us, and from there we went to training center. We took some training and studied weapons, and we stayed there for about 1 month under training, and we then adapted the climate, and we had been through [INAUDIBLE] with the people at that time. When I arrived to Pusan, it was my first [INAUDIBLE]. I was very sad to see demolished buildings, and I saw many children crying on the street. They lost their families, and that was very sad to see that, so we stayed in that training center for about a month. Then we went to the front line, and we had been deployed to the battlefield. We hadn't started our mission. Realizing all the war is war, there's no mercy for war. We took part, and we participated, and we joined the United Nations forces there, and we received many operation orders, so we had been fighting as a fighting patrol and ambush patrol. That was very tiresome, so then ... But the most surprising thing that ... which made our participation in the war, which made it special that Ethiopian soldiers never gave up. No war prisoner took, and we have never left behind our injured soldiers or killed in action, so that was very special going for us, so we stayed there for about a year, and then we had been replaced by another battalion, and we returned home. When we went to Korea, we received a banner, a special banner of the old leader. We received that banner from His Imperial Majesty. The troop which has been to Korea is a special bodyguard, the elite force, so that's why maybe we don't give up, and we have never lost even the front line. We never lost the ground, and we have been successfully captured our objectives very proudly, so now the time is so long. Everything is forgotten. To me, today, what surprised me, to see the Koreans to visit us after 65 years, that was very special. I consider that the Koreans has given a special consideration to our battalion and to our war veterans, and that makes me proud, and, also, we have been to Korea as I told you at the beginning. It was barren and demolished buildings. We see the children crying at the street. That Korea was a very poor country. This is the true story. I can tell you now. At that time, Ethiopia was better than Korea, but after 65 years, Korea is now among the very civilized country, and I think it is 10th or 11th developed countries now. Now that makes us proud. Not the Koreans proud of that because it is we, the Ethiopians who proud more than Koreans because we gave our lives not for nothing. Now at this time, when we see Korea developed, it is we who can be happy. Yeah, but you tell us still to all Koreans that we are more happy than the other Koreans. >> Can you explain a little about the battalions? Why were they called the Kagnew Battalion? How many were there? How many were in each battalion? How many in total went to the war? I know even after the armistice, you stayed. Ethiopians, the battalion stayed, like, for example, Colonel [INAUDIBLE]. He went after the armistice. You know? So can you explain a little bit about this? >> Yeah, although the Ethiopian forces had been to the battlefield about 600, more than 600, 600-something, and among this, 122 died. No prisoner at all, no lost in action, and that makes the Ethiopian force special, and as I told you, this is the elite force. We were very much trained here in Ethiopian also if we're going to Korea, so that's why our participation is very special that time. When we arrived there, we were very young officers. We went to Korea soon after our graduation. We graduated April 11th. We left for Korea April 12th or 13th like that. At that time, we were about ... Our age was between 21 and 22. I myself had been to Korea when I was 22. You can see that is my picture in the museum. When you see I'm very tiny, that's your story. >> You were all kids, and did you all volunteer? Or were you drafted? >> I beg your pardon? >> Did you volunteer? Or who went? >> Yes, yes, I can say, "Volunteer," yes. All of them are volunteer because it was very sad. The Ethiopian situation almost is the same like Korea. At the beginning of the Second World War, we had been invaded by Italians, so at that time, when we appealed to, not to the United Nations but [INAUDIBLE] organization, so at that time, His Imperial Majesty appealed to that organization. They did not give attention to his appeal, so we had been invaded by Italians, so when we had been asked or ordered to go to Korea because we are volunteer because our situation was the same like Korea, so we give priority to save lives of the illegally invaded countries and that we save lives of the oppressed people. >> Mm-hmm, so a total of I believe 6,000 Ethiopians served from 1951 to 1964? Can you tell us a little bit about that battalion that stayed after the armistice? >> After? >> The armistice? >> After armistice, yeah. After armistice, we thought we were returning home, and we started our usual work, so we returned to our unit after armistice, so in between, as you read the story, our country was overthrown. The emperor, Haile Selassie, and the communist regime was adopted, but that communist regime, we were hated by that regime because we had been fighting with the communist invaders so this communist regime, so then they hate us. They don't like to see even our face. We existed only that we were Ethiopians, so if we had been foreigners, we would have been ordered out from Ethiopia by force. >> Yeah, so tell us about the story of the fence. >> Oh? >> With Grandpa Melese and the Korean soldier. >> Melese? >> And the Korean soldier. >> Uh-huh. >> Tell us that story. >> Well, really, accidentally, I had been alongside with the Korean outpost. I was from the right side, and from the left side was the Korean outpost. They were brave fighters, really. Even I admired them. They were brave fighters. They were never afraid. They would never retreat, and I saw them, and we were very close to each other, so I saw them. They were very brave fighters because they are defending their country. They are giving their life for their country. Therefore they are giving their life for their independence. Therefore maybe that's why they are best fighters. >> Oh, no, tell us the story about the fence. >> The fence? >> Yes. >> What fence? >> The blood brother, the blood. >> Okay, you know what happened there once upon a time? The Korean service team came at the front line to strengthen the front line, their defense line, so they were fencing with barbed wire to strengthen the front line, so at that time, they were fencing during the night, so at that time, the enemy heard the noise when they hammer. Then they fired the mortar fire, and that was the fire exploded among the Korean service team, and this explosion killed some of the Koreans and injured some of them also. The injured ones were shouting, asking for help, so the Ethiopian soldiers went out from their defensive position, and they tried to save the lives of those injured or before dying to give aid, so that time, it was only the Ethiopian soldiers went out from their defensive position from the bunker and tried to save the lives of the injured Koreans, so the second round came and exploded, but one of the Ethiopian soldiers, who carried the Korean, the wounded Korean, the second explosion killed both grasping each other, and they died together, and probably they were also graved in the same coffin, maybe, yeah. >> Mm-hmm. >> This is now we ... Our relationship between Korea and Ethiopia is not like others. We have a blood relationship. We use this word. Still we use, and even we use forever. >> Mm-hmm, yeah, so that's why you're my grandpa. >> Mm-hmm. >> Yes, thank you so much. >> That's the story of our ... His name is Melese. He's bearing my name. >> We saw. We saw the grave, yes. >> Melese [INAUDIBLE]. >> What was the name of the Korean? >> Really, it is difficult for me, and even now I cannot call the name of the Korean since it's too difficult. >> Yes, and you returned, you said, to Korea, so can we talk about your role as the president of the Veterans Association? What do you do? How often do the veterans meet? When was the memorial built? You know? Can you share? >> It's not clear for me, your question. >> You're the president of association. >> Yes. >> What does the association do? How many members are there? How often do you meet? You know? There's a memorial. Right? And the park, when was it built? I think the Korean government donated. Right? So can you share with us that information? >> You know, the story of our association, our association has been established in 1931, I think. >> '31? After the war. >> After the war, yes. It is after the war, yeah. >> 1961. >> Our association established after the war ... >> Yeah, so '60. >> ... because during the communist regime, we cannot establish, and we are never established because we have been refused to establish our association, so after this government came, they permitted us to establish our association. >> What year? >> Well, about 24, 25 years ago, we have established our association, and now I'm the second president of our association. Since I have been elected, it is now 7 years since since my election, so within 7 years, you know, our association is built just to help each other and to maintain the story of the Korean War and the relation between Korea and Ethiopia, so now we are doing that. Within this period, we received ... After we had established our association, many Koreans came and visited us. During this time, they gave us a lot of help because during the communist regime, we could not do anything. We were very poor, as you know, and even not only us, but also Ethiopia due to drought, we became very poor and were in very catastrophic condition. So even though it is worse for Korean veterans, so all the country was under poverty at that time, so they were better than ever, so now since we established our association, as you know, as you have seen also, it is [INAUDIBLE] has been controlled, Ethiopia. The first mayor, he went to Korea for visit, has been to Chuncheon. You know the story why this monument, the same monument is in Chuncheon? Because Chuncheon, it was our battalion who controlled that place the first time because the place was very strongly defended by the communists. It was Kagnew Battalion who controlled that area. >> Mm-hmm. >> So then the Chuncheon people gave this importance to Kagnew, and they built that monument there. >> Mm-hmm. >> So the same kind of monument is built here. >> Mm-hmm. >> Now as I told you, the first mayor of the [INAUDIBLE] went to Chuncheon and had seen that monument, and he signed a sisterhood agreement and came and gave this place to Korean veterans as a memorial. Then this monument is built by the contribution of Korean, the Chuncheon people and the Korean government. Since then, we have been celebrating our memorial days every year in April because we left Ethiopia for Korea in April, so we are choosing this month as a memorial. >> Mm-hmm. >> Since then, we have been celebrating every year and this year also. I don't know, maybe 21st or 22nd April, we are going to celebrate. >> What do you do to celebrate? What happens? >> Well, we invite guests, and we make a speech. We lay wreaths in the monument, and we give also luncheon. All this are by sponsorship. We can't get it also, and mostly the Korean embassy help us. >> Oh, today we saw Efrim and the descendants of Korean War veterans. Now they volunteer for the association. You know? Sons and daughter, they work for the association, so can you explain about why they started to get involved and what you hope from them? >> Well, from the descendants, you mean? >> Mm-hmm. >> Well, of course, we are all old now. Maybe we are passing now. You know? So the story should not be passed, so this story should be kept by the following regimes, so we pass this story to the present descendants, and they also pass to their children, so the story will remain as a story of relation between Korea and Ethiopia will reign for indefinite time. >> Mm-hmm. >> So that's the amend purpose. >> Mm-hmm, how ... >> We want to not do the ... The story should not be forgotten. >> How many veterans are living right now? And how many maybe widows and descendants are part of the association? >> Presently? >> Mm-hmm. >> Well, it's difficult to know the number of the children and the widows, difficult to know that, but we definitely know. We can precisely tell the number of veterans who are alive, but maybe the widows ... It was just guessing about 1,000, about 1,000 widows maybe present, but the children are ... Soldiers always like to have many children. >> Mm-hmm. >> You know? So therefore it is difficult one to tell you exactly the number of the descendants. >> But they are welcome to participate in the association? >> Mm-hmm, well, I have been trying to find many times before the present ones. I tried about three times. Now the last ones, they are successful, and they are very volunteer. >> Mm-hmm. >> They don't ask for any payment. They work voluntarily. You know, they are young people. They have better ideas than us. They have better physical condition, so they are now trying to improve the association's memorial. >> Yeah, so I met three of them today, and we had lunch together. >> Yes. >> We had a lot of fun. It was very good to see young people respect the memory and honor your contributions and to carry the legacy because, like you said, it's important that they carry it. They pass it onto their children indefinitely because many other associations around the world, that's their number-one concern. What do we do when the veterans are no longer there? What happens? And for Ethiopian Korean War veterans to have already descendants part of the association, it's very good. You know? >> Yeah, thanks to the Korean people and the government of Korea and so many [INAUDIBLE] of Korean such like [INAUDIBLE]. They give scholarship privilege to many descendants, and the Korean government also is giving the patient otherwise [INAUDIBLE] entrance. Now those who are privileged of getting the free scholarship, and these descendants are from among them, so they do understand our problem and are 100 percent volunteer to assist us. Now we also rely on them now. >> Mm-hmm, that's wonderful, and last word, lastly, you visited Korea. When was the last time you went to Korea? >> Myself? >> Mm-hmm. >> I think about a year ago. >> One year ago? >> One year ago, yeah. >> Oh. >> What is that year? >> 2016? >> Yeah. >> Oh. >> I have been many times, several times to Korea, about five, six times ... >> Mm-hmm. >> ... after the war. >> And I'm sure they greet you with so much thanks and love and right? They treat you very well, I hope. Right? >> Yeah. >> And when you go, do you go with other Ethiopian veterans? >> Oh, yes, even, yes, yes, I go always with the other veterans. >> Mm-hmm. >> And even I am invited. They invited me with my children. Two of my children have been there, and my two grandchildren also have been to Korea. >> Oh, wow, and that's ... >> And the one also is still there now. She left us recently for a scholarship. You know Korea? >> Mm-hmm. >> And you know the universities of Korea? Hankuk University, do you know? >> Mm-hmm. >> Yes, my granddaughter is there now. >> Hmm. >> She attended about 8 months ago. She's still there. I received a call this morning from her. >> Hmm, oh, one last story, why is your nickname Kim? >> Pardon me? >> Your nickname? >> Okay, my nickname, you know, during the war, there was a famous fighter. Marshall Kim was a famous fighter, so I also ... When I was in Korea, I had been several times to patrol action, and I made many actions. I engaged many times by communist forces, so then my course of it, they gave me this name. They gave me his name to call me as a nickname, Marshall Kim. >> Marshall Kim. >> Yeah because he was very brave fighter. >> Mm-hmm. >> And they called me also a very brave fighter, so we have to give this name to him. >> Mm-hmm. >> That's why they called me Marshall Kim. >> Mm-hmm, well, like you said, Koreans and Ethiopians are blood brothers, and I'm very glad to be here to meet my grandpa and my Ethiopian brothers, so thank you so much for your time, and thank you so much for your contribution. >> I thank you also. Thank you very much. >> Mm-hmm. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]
>> My name is Stephanas Gabramaskan, Colonel retired. If you want information about the war, I think Colonel Melissa will better explain, and he has more experience, and he knows more about the war, and he will inform you better. I think you better, but from my side, I was in the 4th Battalion, and the 4th Battalion was not engaged in the war. We change the 3rd Battalion and their bunker and their defense line, and we stayed about 5, 6 months in the defense line and then were replaced by the native or the Korean army. The whole defense area after the war was replaced by the Korean army. The Korean army were good fighters. They did their best. They lost so many lives because of the invasion, and we stayed there for 1 year, and before, we were making training in case if the war started. We were making training and then stayed 1 more year. Now, everything was, I think, the ceasefire was constant and thorough, so we came back, but the three Battalions who were engaged in the war, they did a lot of fightings, about 235 times they engaged by three Battalions, and they lose about 122 men, the martyrs died in the war and totally 635 wounded that days, and they have captured so many places, and they were engaged. They captured prisoners and got information about the enemy. We were very sorry because we went to Korea, but our government, the Emperor Haile Selassie, when the Ethiopians invaded by the fascism, nobody was trying to help us, so we know. Those who are weak when they are invaded by the powerful nations and our emperor gave a faster response to the request of the UN forces and to the UN, and we just went. We sent four times a Battalion and one time a company just to represent. I think we tried to do everything what we can. We tried what weaken, and we did, and we came back. We really saw after the war the Koreans were very developed, very much developed. The highways, the buildings, the construction and everything was fantastic, unbelievable within these short times, and they became the 10th developed country in the world that nobody will ... Admire that, nobody will do that fast. There were so many countries developed before them, but within short times after the war, after they suffer everything, after everything was destroyed and after they were a colonialist, and every resources were taken from them. You don't believe it to see that. Those who know Korea first ... We saw Korea. I saw Korea first, how it was during the war, and then after the war, I just visited Korea, and there was a fast development in that country that people, you see they were working here, there, run, and you don't see people talking just in one place, collected in one place. You see people running for work, and they did their best for their country. >> We're very grateful for you. >> But about the war, Colonel will better ... In the country where we don't know, in the country where the air conditions, the atmosphere was not known to us, and in the country where we don't have ... We were fighting with old types of weapons, but when we go there, we were trained by any weapon which we don't know. After that, we start to fight with that weapon. >> You went after the armistice. What was your position? What was your rank, and what did you do? >> I was a second lieutenant, and everybody, our president also was a second lieutenant. He was very young. We were on 20s. Now, we are over 80. >> But the war didn't break out again after the armistice. >> I beg your ... >> After the armistice ... >> Yeah. >> ... no more war, you know? No more battle, right? Did you do more battles? Did you fight more battles? >> Well, inside the country. Inside the country, there was fighting. There were secessionists, and to avoid that, we tried to fight, but we were not successful. The government at this point, they made a coup. >> Which government? >> Our government. The army made a coup and overthrow the king and kill him, and they become communist influenced, so the developed countries were not supporting us. We had done also some mistakes. The army did some mistakes also, and we lose the war and the new government, the present government have won the battle, and now we are under the new government, and after this government has come, we have our friends, the South Koreans, come to us, come to help us, and through us, they were introduced to the new government. >> Did you see Korean civilians? >> And we also were not allowed to wear the medals which we got from the Korean War. >> Why? >> Because they were communist influenced, and they said you were not democrat and you fall to the communists. They said that, and we are not allowed to wear, and we were supposed to be a communist, but the west won at last because they help them, and they lose, and our friends come to help us. They build this. They build this building, the office. They build a monument for us, the same monument in Korea, the only monument for those who fought in Korea. They have one here and then here. They didn't build for others, and we have a respect for the Korean people and the government. >> Did you see Koreans when you were there fighting? What year did you go, 1953? >> '54. >> '54. >> Yeah. >> Did you see Korean kids, children, women? Did you see civilians? >> Yeah. We have met Korean people, the civilians. We were introduced after especially we come back, and we had friends also, but especially the 4th Battalion was helping the young, the students of the Korean people. We were helping. We donate some monies and specially the religious group. They had contact with our religious or the father of our religion with us who was with us, and we had contact. And even there was a boy who don't know how he is, whether he died or alive. We call him Samtayo. >> Who is that? >> A champion man. >> He was Korean? >> He was a Korean. He write Amharic. He speak Amharic within that short period. >> Wow. He learned. >> Yeah, and he was intelligent. He was intelligent. >> Was he a houseboy? Was he a houseboy, young? >> No, we were helping them. No houseboy with us. We have only those who cook foods and people, chefs, Korean chefs. >> What did they cook for you? >> Huh? >> What did they cook for you? Korean food? Ethiopian food? >> No, European food, and Ethiopian food, we don't get it. We have the C-rations and also some other foods which we receive from the UN. They cook that, prepare for us, and we eat that. They were Korean chefs with us. We never forget them. >> When you went to Korea to visit, they must have been so welcoming you, you know, welcome you, right? >> Yeah. >> Yes. >> They welcome us. Even the president was present when we reach in the port, the president was Mr. Syngman Rhee. You will see it in our museum if you ... >> Yes. >> ... if you walk to the museum. >> Yes, yes. >> You will see him. >> He greeted you. >> Yeah. He was coming to the port where we land, and then he gave salute and he received us. He was Mr. Syngman Rhee. >> Yes, first Korean president. >> Yeah, the first ... >> Yes. >> ... Korean president. >> Yes. I would like to go to the museum, yes. Let's go. >> Yeah. >> I think this is great for ...