Stories from the Korean War

Click on any of the videos to hear stories of Korean War veterans from different parts of the world!

>> My name is Derstin Germadell. When I went to Korea, I was [INAUDIBLE] but now [INAUDIBLE] at this time. I went to Korea because of the United Nations. Our government is believing [INAUDIBLE] collective, and by that time, the Koreans run by North Korea. So at that time, we are in the United Nations. So at that time, our governments were voluntary to send troops to fight with the United Nations. At that time, I was Battle Commander, and it's his first time for us to go to foreign country. At that time, we didn't know Korean areas or the ways or anything like that, but the first time our government, they gave us some orientation about the North Korean, and then, of course, we went by ship, and they went to Busan first time. At that time, we met the president of Sint Maarten. We saw General Cobedacabre that time, the continent commander. Then at that time, we didn't know, so they brief us how to leave the area, also starting to train ourselves. The weapons is new to us, the Americans' weapons, and they would stay there in Busan for 3 months training, and now some areas where that has happened, and then after that, we went to the front line. At that time, the Americans, because we are from Africa, only we would be there. So the Americans, they asked us, "Where are you from? Where are you coming? Are you a British colony?" "No," we said, we were not a colony. [INAUDIBLE] so ... "How do you speak?" [INAUDIBLE] speak in English." We say, "Of course, we are in the school." "We all speak English." We said, "Of course, we are in this school," and we learned English. Especially our officers, they are trained in the academy, of course. So everybody knows, it's not a problem for us, the language. So we start up to front line, and then at that time, they don't believe us because they are afraid if the Koreans, North Koreans or Chinese break the line, they came from behind. So they sent us first but accompanied by a platoon, a floater attached to the company of Americans. Then at that time, the first time I went to the one company attached to the Americans at the front line, and then the company commander gave us a mission to go forward and to see, at that time, there is no [INAUDIBLE] front line. The mission that he gave us to do, to bring president or so to destroy enemy bunkers. "So this mission will be you starting tomorrow morning," and then he also attached, was one, [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] six, seven people with us, Americans, and then in the morning, I started to go to that area, especially [INAUDIBLE] we know how to read the map, the area, the hill, the river, everything we could read already. So he told me to go this place and try to bring president. So I went, but some time after I start in the morning, there is clouds. I can't see 10 meters even, and then I report to company commander. He said, "Stop, stay there. I'll inform you when the clouds go. You can go to your mission." After 1/2 an hour, the cloud is off. Then I went. I told him, "I can see now." So it was about 2, 3 kilometers from the company areas. I went to the front, and then I stayed there, and then I observed by my ... >> Binocular. >> And so there is an enemy bunker in front I can see. Unfortunately, one Chinese soldier came out from the bunker, and he tried to go to the river. There is some river, and I now have an opportunity to take him easily. So I turned to my squadron commander [INAUDIBLE] FR, and he took slips just with him, and he went down, and then the soldiers, he tried to take the water from the river, and then they captured him, take back, and then I reported to the company commander, and he said, "Please send him immediately," and then I came back to this area, and then he gave me orders again. "Now try to destroy the bunker." "Yes, I can see the bunker." It's about a 100 meters, something like that, from my place. So I have set of 75 millimeters. Also we put out machines and then shoot them. I report I did all these things, and they told me that, "Is it possible to go to that area and bring some peoples if you can?" "Yes, I can." He changed his mind again. "Please can you hold them there? I will give you artillery to bombard the area over there." So, "Yes," I told him I'd ring him up, and then he understand, and he knows where I am under the [INAUDIBLE] three round. So I destroyed the area, and then he say, "Come back. That's enough. So I tried to go back, and as we started walking up again back, it's about 400 meters, something like that, the enemies, they realize that we are there, and, from left and right, they started shooting. Anyhow, this jungle area, as we went back safely without anything or any prisoners at that time, but unfortunately, on the front line before me in some areas, they took one prisoner. So they promised us to send someone for vacation and something like that, but unfortunately somebody was before me. So I lost my chance at that time. So after 3 or 4 days with the company there, and then I went back to my unit. This is the first time I did my tour. Now this time, the Americans, they saw us, that we are very good soldiers, and that we are brave. So we starting with company size in the front line, and then from the front line, we start to go with the company, fighting on the frontline zone. So we did that so they'd believe in us, [INAUDIBLE] everything with them. So we went with the battalion first on the front line and then, starting with the company, fighting in some areas. So we did a lot of ... We win a lot, and then we [INAUDIBLE]. >> Mm-hmm. I read that you never lost a battle. You had about 263 combats but never lost a battle. >> No. >> That's amazing. >> That's so amazing. >> That's really amazing, and that ... >> No prisoners, no even ... >> Dead, dead. >> ... dead men. >> I know. >> Yeah. >> That's amazing. >> Yeah, because always after fighting, we controlled our people and where they are. Of course, sometimes, we are in the bush and something. So we'd find them and take them back, yeah. >> Mm. So later, after the Korean War, you stayed in the military, and you eventually retired as a general, right? And you fought in Congo, and after, you saw other conflicts, but what do you think is the significance of the Korean War in terms of Ethiopia's military actions? >> You see, there is a different unity there, especially French units in some areas, and then sometimes, there are lots of their soldiers and so on. Then we go to the front line, of course, in that area. As of that time, of course, the Americans, as I told you, we are moving on us, and so we are a diverse battalion, [INAUDIBLE] battalion, and then sometimes after we stay there on the front line, we go back to rest. So at that time, we meet a lot of [INAUDIBLE] from another continent. Is that not answer for you? >> Ah, no, no, no, no. So Ethiopians, do they know about the Korean War? Are they proud of the Korean War, Ethiopians in general? >> Are they proud of it? That's ... >> Ethiopians, do they know about Korean War? >> Yeah. >> They do? >> Yeah, they know, for example that our officers [INAUDIBLE] before 10 years after, 20 years, and now some of them coming together and so on, and we had a lot of experience at that time, and then, for example, you see, the Korean people, they are really with us. They are good to us, I can say. At that time, as my wife told you, when we went to Korea, the area and the people is very, very, very low and very poor. If you knew [INAUDIBLE] at that time, but now, I was there 3 years ago, and so the area was bombed, and now woods ... Everything is ... Only at that time, but now the place is industry. Where we are fighting, it's been [INAUDIBLE]. It's amazing to see these people. So even we learned enough from them, from Korean people. We know we saw, at that time, what they are, but now, they are completely changed. They can teach us how to be a good people and do good things. >> Well, I want to let you know that the rise of Korea from the ashes of war, it is actually thanks to your contributions. I read that Ethiopians were, again, one of the best fighters, and that the enemy saw blacks for the first time, and they thought you were superhuman because you had a reputation for being so brave and best soldiers, and I thought that was very funny. Can you explain to us a little bit about your medal? >> Now, for example ... [ Chatter ] >> See, the one thing now, what the Koreans is doing for us, really, in the hospital, free ... We are in the hospital, everything. We are not paying. You see? No. Now when I go, two times operation in a Korean hospital. Yeah, I'm not paying, nothing. Medicine is free. Operation, everything is free for us besides this ... They are giving us pocket money every month, [INAUDIBLE] >> Whoa. >> You see? Now they are not forgetting us. Still if we ask them to do something for us, they do it. They never buck. They always say, "Please ask us what you want. You give us our blood, your blood, your life for our country. Now we are in this place. We are here now. So we can help you. You are our brothers because our blood is together now." You see, one Korean ... They always went out on the front line. They bring us hot food and something like that, padding, because no person is reaching there. So after he gave us this food, and, you, see, before he go back, the enemy shoots a weapon, of course, and then in the ridge, one of the ridges, they can't see them. Then this Korean hit by this, by some artillery, another artillery, and then our soldiers, they went and take him. Again, they fire. Both of them, they died, just like that. So we are blood. Even in the blood, we are together with the Korean people. So even they are good for us. Of course, we do our best to them also. Yeah. >> Well, again, I'm very grateful, and that's why I'm here, and I call all Korean War veterans my grandpas because I say if you weren't there fighting, I wouldn't be here right now. >> You are proud of them still now. >> And my friends and family and supporters in America and all over the world say they want me to express gratitude on their behalf. So thank you very much, thank you. >> So you are saying when you are asking to receive, thank you very much. Again I say, please tell our bravery to your people. >> Thank you. Thank you. Thank you. >> Thank you.
>> Okay. My name is Burkanesh. I went to Korea with the Third Battalion of Ethiopia to Korea to help the wounded soldiers and general soldiers. It's not only for Ethiopians but for the whole United Nation, wounded soldiers, and then I stayed in Korea only in Korea about 5 months, and then I went to Tokyo because there were big hospital there for wounded soldiers for 1 year informant, and it was [INAUDIBLE] so we were from many country as I told you before, from America, from England, from Belgium, from Greek and from everywhere, and we used to work together in team, and whenever it was needed, whenever it's needed, they call us from everywhere. There were two hospitals, main hospital and annex hospital. When they need our help, they're calling us. They page us, and they send this motor pool car and went wherever we are needed, and it was so. >> How many Ethiopian nurses went to Korea? >> We were only two, Sister Esther Ayana and me. >> Hmm. Did you volunteer to go? >> Yes, we were volunteers. >> Why did you volunteer? >> We just want to help the soldiers, and at that time, world is so strange for everybody, and we were eager to see the world. >> Because at that time, there were not many women nurses. >> No, we were only nine who were graduating from Red Cross. We were only nine, and they asked us, "Who is volunteer?" Everybody raised the hand and Sister Studer, she chose only two of us. >> Wow, so they didn't take all volunteers. They chose you. >> Yeah. >> Why did they choose you? >> "Who wants to go to Korea?" they said. >> Yeah. >> We raised out. >> But they chose you. >> Yeah. >> Because you had high marks? >> I don't know really. >> Whoa. >> In fact, I was the second from school. Anyway, I don't know why, how she chose us. >> When you went to Korea, did you see Koreans? >> Yes. >> You did? >> Yeah. >> You treated ... >> I've seen Koreans, and I have seen Korea, I mean Pusan, Seoul, and it was terrible really to see. It was very sad. Many nice buildings were falling down during the war. The war just destroyed the country, and what I never forget is, there was one Korean man. Everything is plain, nothing, no house, nothing. It was in Pusan, and he put two things, these wooden for his shelter. He was sitting there, and he was sewing shoes. I never forget it. >> Yeah. >> It's ... >> They were very poor. >> Yeah, yeah. >> But now it's different. >> I know. I know now it's very different. I heard so, and my husband has been twice in Korea. Once? >> Once. >> Once, once, he was in Korea. >> When? I guess 3 or 4 years ago. >> Oh, very different, tall buildings. >> Yeah. >> Yes. >> He said it is different, completely different. >> You didn't go though? >> No, after that, I didn't go. They invited me to go, and unfortunately, he was sick. I couldn't leave him alone here. >> Well, you can still go. You can still go. >> Yeah. >> Yeah. >> Can you explain to us about the medals? >> This is a medal, what I have got. This is from United Nation. >> Mm-hmm, show on the camera. Show here. >> Most of it from United Nation, and this is from my government, and this is from my government, and this is from my government. >> You're wearing it. >> Yeah. >> You're wearing it. >> And this is from Korea. >> Yes, so you must have the most medals among any Ethiopian woman, huh? >> Yes. >> Yes. >> Yes, I guess so. >> Yeah, I think so. I think so. You must be very proud. Wasn't it very difficult because you were a woman and it's war and there's ... >> And this is from Swiss, from International Red Cross. >> Red Cross, mm-hmm, but wasn't it very difficult, being in a foreign country. Everybody, most people ... >> We were young, and so we were young at that time. We don't care, and we are not afraid. We're just going wherever the soldiers are, and there was temporary cleaning for the wounded soldiers, and it was ... We did our best anyway. Daytime, it's peaceful, nothing, but in the evening, starting from 6, they started fighting. >> Really? >> When we were asleep, yeah. >> Really? I didn't know they fought at night. >> They fought [INAUDIBLE]. They [INAUDIBLE]. >> Oh, I never knew that. >> Yeah. >> I would think that they would fight in the day. >> No, not the day. >> Wow. >> It is in the ... You see, it is in the evening, usually, starting from 6 or 5. They start at that time. They fight. >> Do you remember maybe one specific patient? >> A patient? >> Mm-hmm, do you remember any patient? >> Oh, Ethiopian, when I was in Korea, we were taking care only of the Ethiopian soldiers. >> Mm. >> Yeah. >> There were 122 that died and more than 500 that were wounded. >> Yeah. >> Yes. >> You mean our soldiers? >> Mm-hmm, Ethiopia, yes. >> Yeah, yeah, but only they die, about 110 or 105. >> A hundred twenty-two, 122. >> Yeah. >> Yes, but they were one of the best soldiers. They never gave up. >> No, they never gave up. >> Yes. >> They never, never. They never [INAUDIBLE] never take our soldiers, never. >> So tell us a little bit about how you met the general after the war. >> Well ... >> Everybody loves a love story, yeah. >> I met him in Ethiopia. >> Mm-hmm. >> His sister was a nursing school student. >> Mm-hmm. >> And she was a friend of mine. That's how we met. >> Hmm, and you both knew that you went to Korea? >> Yes. >> Hmm, that's why you ... >> When ... >> ... maybe connected? >> He, you see, when I was 4 years, he went to Korea in the first Battalion, and then I don't know how long they stayed, and he came back, and when I was [INAUDIBLE] for my school, and he was the one instructing and telling us how to prevent yourself by shooting this and that. >> Self-protection in case something happened. >> And he was the one who was giving us training. >> Mm-hmm. >> Just training, huh? >> So how old were you when you went to Korea? >> How what? >> How old? >> Mid 20. >> Twenty. >> When I was 21, I married. >> Hmm. >> Yeah. >> Hmm. >> We were very young when we go to nursing school, very young, and we were the first nurses in Ethiopia. >> Oh. >> Yeah, the first. There was no one else in Ethiopia at that time. >> Oh. >> And, of course, there was princess. She was a nurse. She was a princess, and she took her training in England. She was the first one, and we were. >> Wow, that's amazing. >> Yeah. >> So now there are many nurses, and so you are like the godmother, yeah, of Ethiopian nurses. Wow that is wonderful. What an honor to meet you, and I hope that you would also be able to go to Korea to see that your contributions and sacrifices made Korea what it is today. >> Thank you. >> Thank you. Thank you so much for your service, yeah.
South Africa Pretoria
>> My name is Dirk Louw, and I am the president of the South African Korean War Veterans Association in South Africa. I have been serving for the past 4 years after being elected as a descendant to serve as the president of this association in South Africa. The South African contribution started in Korea on the 4th of August, 1950, when the South African government decided to answer the call for support for the United Nations effort in Korea, and a total of 826 South African airmen and ground crew served in Korea over this period until 1953. The first forces left by ship on the 5th of September, 1950, and over this period, a total of 36 members paid the highest price. Two of the members were ground crew, and the 34 was pilots, and then a 37th member died 8 months after returning to South Africa, due to the horrendous conditions he had to be in during his days in a prisoner of war camp. Over this period, the South African Air Force has leased aircraft from the United States, and 74 Mustang aircrafts was written off over this period, as well as five Sabres. The South African contribution over this period was highly ... Okay, I'm going to start this portion, just this portion. Over the period of 1950 until 1953, the South African forces lost 34 pilots and two ground crew, and they lost 74 of the 94 Mustang aircraft leased to the South African Air Force and five of the 24 Sabres that was leased. The South African Air Force contribution was seen as a major contribution towards the war, and the majority of the pilots were highly decorated for their efforts. Currently, I am serving as the president mainly to ensure that I look after the welfare of the members of the Korean War Veterans Association and then also to ensure that I document all the information related to the heroic deeds that these men did during the war. I have a monthly newsletter which I then produce and which I distribute to various countries, where people are that are interested in reading this newsletter. We have several functions during the year, which are related to the Korean War, but we also attend several other memorial services in South Africa, where veterans are generally remembered. In South Africa, we have three full memorial sites where the Korean names appear. One is at Air Force Base SWAT group at the memorial. The other one is at Union buildings, and the third one is in Capetown. I don't know what to say more. >> No, that's perfect. Oh, how many are there now and ... >> Okay. >> ... active? >> The current situation is that the members are getting old, and at this moment, according to my documentary proof that I have on the registry of people that have belonged to the Korean War Veterans Association, and we must please understand that there are a lot of members that never belonged to the association, but the members that are registered with me are, at this moment, 21 Korean War veterans, which consists of ground crew, as well as pilots, and then we have 19 wives, as well as 35 widows. The memorial services that are held are normally attended by myself and then one of our senior Korean War veterans, General Herb and his wife, and the Korean-specific memorials, like the Armistice Day in June, is normally attended by the majority of the veterans, as well as the majority of the descendants. So we have a huge contribution by the members on that occasion. We have several small functions during a year. We try to see where we can accommodate the needs of the members, and then as well as where there are a lot of the ... See, I can't say a lot of. >> It's okay. >> Okay, I can start over at this portion again. They are several small events during a year where there are associations in South Africa, like, for instance, the International Youth Foundation, which normally wants to do some dances for the veterans and entertainment, and the South African volunteers went to Korea, and they went to a country they never have heard of before, and they set foot in a country where they have never been before, and they have defended people that they've never met before. I'm proud to say today that I am very honored to be part of this association, and like one of the senior veterans said on the question why he really fought in the war, [INAUDIBLE] said that as everybody has a quest, it was their quest to help those that couldn't help themselves.
>> Hy Kim, are you going to have an interview with me about my time in Korea? Well it's so long ago, 1951. I was 20 years old, turned 21 there, and it was a great experience. We had just received our wings, qualified as pilots with few hours over qualifying, when they said it looked as though the Korean War would be over fairly soon, and we needed that experience. It didn't turn out that way. It all went on until 1953. So I was in 1951, it was a hectic year. It were very experienced pilots gone on the original squadron, and even with them and with us joining we had heavy losses. Almost 29 in the year 1951. Out of the total that we lost the war, 35. So in initial stages the anti aircraft was very bad. But I'm so pleased that I made it because it was an experience, a great experience. >> What was your rank at the time? >> I was a second lieutenant. Just shortly received my wings and we were commissioned when I was a second lieutenant. >> And how old were you? >> I was 20 years old then, turned 21 during my tour there. >> How about the rest of the pilots? >> Well as I said, you know, they were many of World War II pilots, they were just completing their tour already and were returning back to base and we then went as a replacement. And the powers to be thought it would be a great experience before the war would stop and it didn't, in fact, as I said it continued until '53. >> Did you volunteer or were you ...? >> Yes. >> Why? >> Well, you know what? I was in Korea, decided on the Air Force as my career and my country had committed to helping the United Nations in the war so it was quite a natural thing. You volunteer and sign on the dotted line and off we went, you know? And looking back, I'm pleased about the great experience. The sad part about it having lost so many close friends. It was such a short period of time. >> During the war you lost many friends? >> Yes. Well as I said, you know, it was just in that one first year, 1951, those 29 pilots were lost. We lost a total of 35 so in the initial stages. The anti aircraft and so forth was really hectic, but as that sort of decreased, the losses diminished also. And towards the end, they didn't fly the Mustang anymore like I did. They flew the Saber, which is not as vulnerable, you know, as the Mustang was. >> The Mustang is very, very famous. Why is it so famous? >> It started as a great aircraft in World War II, and it was vulnerable in that it had a coolant system, wiping, running, you know, and being so easily damaged by anti aircraft fire. That was the only drawback about it, but it handled well. The endurance was very long. Compared to the Spitfire that I flew previously, which had a very limited flight endurance, the Mustang had a very long endurance. They were flights up to 7 hours, you know, with dropped tanks and so forth. >> Do you remember a specific battle that was important to South Africa? So in South Africa, only Air Force? >> Yes. Oh, no, that's wrong. The Air Force was the main contribution that we made on two [INAUDIBLE] squadron. Oversize squadron because replacements, you know, took quite a while because of the distance and so forth. They were only also Army contingents, officers, [Indistinct] to a British regiment. A contra member or fan, I taught 10 of them. Also shared in the war, on the ground forces with the British. >> Well among other United Nations, there weren't too many Air Force, right? >> Air Forces contributing, there was your UCEF and our Air Force, and then the British also had aircraft flying from carriers. The Australians had [INAUDIBLE], jet aircraft. Not that successful in the role that they had to do in ground attack after the [INAUDIBLE] in England, and it was a good aircraft but not quite suited for that war. Let's see, I can't think of the other aircraft, the other Air Forces. >> Did you get to see any civilians? Korean civilians? >> Out by [INAUDIBLE] down in the south of Korea, there was a naval base not far away and there was a very nice, in the sea, that we could go swimming. And we went there and I met quite a number of the young sailors, would meet us, you know, we were like foreigners and they were inquisitive and we had chats and what have you, and talking to, you know, people from the embassy, that the present attaché is from the Navy and he knows [INAUDIBLE] as well [INAUDIBLE]. So we had very enjoyable, in our off periods. We went [INAUDIBLE] in the south, was our main base but then we'd fly up to Seoul with a forward base and we did a lot of the operations we did from there. >> And you visited Korea again? >> Yes. >> When? >> Three visits. >> Wow. >> And my last visit was in June or was it July, and I was very, very pleasantly surprised to be decorated by a decorations and presidential decoration that the minister presented me with in July, it was, I believe. >> Last year? July 2016? >> Yes. >> Wow. >> So that was quite something. >> Korea is very different from when you first went. >> Whoa. You know, it's quite unbelievable. I tried to tell people what a country was ravaged, you know, with the enemy going through Seoul right down to the south and then being pushed back again, and to see that country now, how it's been rebuilt. It's just unbelievable just to see the road system and the building. It's so modern and very, very well organized and tidy. Very, very impressive. It's quite amazing that the industrial development is fantastic. >> You must be very proud. >> Oh, yes, and I'm pleased that I made that tiny, tiny little contribution. >> It was not tiny, it was very big. It was very big. And when you were involved with the association, do you remember serving with some of the members of the association in Korea? >> A member of? >> The Korean War Veterans Association here in South Africa. Your comrades. >> Yes. >> Yes. Do you remember? Do you serve in the same unit? >> Well we only had the one unit. Two squadrons. >> Two squadrons. How many were in each squadron? >> No we were only one squadron. >> One squadron. How many? >> Well pilots, more or less 20 at the time, pilots and they were replaced as they completed their tour and [INAUDIBLE] and so forth. >> You must have been very close? >> Oh, yes. Very, very close bond of the people who served in Korea, but there's so few left at the moment. >> I know. >> Like today, there are only two of us. My friend, [INAUDIBLE], was a prisoner of war, he would also have been here but he had another commitment and what have you. But I'm not sure off hand, but I don't know whether we have more than 10 or so pilots left, you know? A very good friend of mine passed away last week. [INAUDIBLE]. >> Did you say you were also captured? >> Say again. >> Were you also captured? >> No, no, no. I was fortunate. I spent just over 4 hours on the ground, very far north of Pyongyang, near the Yalu River, but I was fortunate I was picked up by helicopter after about, just over 4 hours. >> How did you get stranded on the ground? Why were you on the ground? >> I had to bail out of my aircraft. >> Why? >> Because it wouldn't fly anymore it was, so I had to bail out by parachute. >> Really? By yourself? >> Yes, a single seat aircraft, you know, it's a fighter aircraft. >> And who picked you up? South Africans? >> No, no, no. A helicopter that was launched from an American ship, the Gunston Hall. This is Gunston Hall. >> But how did they see you? >> Well they were given the map reference and I could navigate there, and as it happened, it was very mountainous there and [INAUDIBLE] and I could hear this chuck, chuck, chuck, chuck, chuck come from an ACE51 Sikorsky approaching me and so forth. And I'll never forget that welcome site when he hovered, he didn't land he just hovered and they lowered a rope and they hoisted me up and the pilot turned around and shook my hand, and then we went out again and on the way out we were fired at again and was hit a few times. When we were escorted again by fighters going out, and I wasn't aware what the damage was on the aircraft, but on the first approach to land on the ship we had to go around again. He couldn't land because with the controls I think there was something wrong with the controls. And then on the second attempt we landed and so forth. And then I was taken to the sick bay and when I arrived there there was an American pilot from [INAUDIBLE] that had been shot down and he unfortunately lifted too late before he decided to bail out, and he was fairly badly burnt, you know, on his hands and his face and so forth. I had the advantage that one our pilots had also lifted a bit late so we all knew if the temperature started going off the clock, it was time for you to make sure that you got out in time before it burst into flames. >> The helicopter that picked you up, was it United Air Force or Navy pilots? >> Naval pilot, yes. >> Wow. >> USS Gunston Hall. Later on somebody visited America and per chance, one of our newspapers met the captain of the ship who was at the time, and I've got some newspaper cuttings and so forth, you know, and he also explained, repeated the story again and what have you. That's quite a small world. >> So he was a Naval pilot who picked you up? >> Yes, yes. >> And you got to meet him again? >> No, no, unfortunately not. >> You later learned about him? >> Yes. The newspaper man from South Africa visited America and by chance met that captain of the ship. It was a captain of the USS Gunston Hall at the time. >> What was it called? USS? >> Duston Hall was the name of the ship. >> Dunston Hall, and the Navy pilot was from that ship. USS Gunston Hall. >> Yeah. >> Wow. You know it would be so fascinating for you to have a reunion with some of the people because I interview many veterans, and they talk about each other, you know, like British talk about Australian. British talk about, you know, Americans. So it would be nice to do a reunion. Did you have any Australians? Did you see any Australians? >> Once there were some Australian pilots who visited us and we had quite a party and so forth but they were, you know, at another base quite a distance. But we were three American squadrons with our squadron, formed the 18 Fighter Bomber [INAUDIBLE]. And we had very, very good relationship with the three American squadrons. Very, very good experience. >> What did you do for rest when you didn't have missions? >> Well the main thing was swimming, as I mentioned, you know. Near that naval base. I think that was, fortunately, I was there only in summer. If you talk to people who were there in winter, that's another story. >> I think you were fortunate. >> Very fortunate. >> Yes. >> So time off ... >> How long was your service? How many months? >> I was only there for over 5 months, and I've completed the ... >> In 1951? >>... the normal tour we had to do was 75 missions, but I went down on my 73rd one and when I got back, you know, the helicopter picked me up and then I went, was taken by small ship to a island, Ryodo Island, off the Wonsan harbor and then with a very icy sort of a trip in the [INAUDIBLE] aircraft, went back to my base and so forth. And when I walked into the office, because we had lost so many of our young, of course, already, as I walked in he said, "Mike, pack your bags, you're going home." So I still had two, three missions to go, but he said, "You've had enough." Because there were so many of our course, you know, who had been shot down. >> So on average, how many missions did you fly per day? >> The most, possibly four. On average, it's difficult to say actually, because as I said, we'd fly missions and then you'd have a day or so off and then you fly missions again. By far the most I think we ever did was four, because it was mostly long missions, you know? Two hours, three, four hours. So it varied a lot depending on what type of mission it was and so forth. >> And you would look for the enemies? >> Well our main, our task was ground attack. We mainly looked for vehicles bringing down ammunition and supplies and what have you. >> And you would shoot them? >> And then we would [INAUDIBLE] them out. And I became so clever and so good at camouflage, eventually they didn't travel by day at all. They'd only travel by night. And during the day they would hide their vehicles so well it was quite something. But it's quite amazing, actually, one of my early missions I flew with one of the experienced pilots, [INAUDIBLE] officer from World War II, who was a ground attack pilot. And I could then learn from him and we all learned from him. We were a number of [INAUDIBLE] young pilot. We flew out to another target and he spotted some vehicles, and he made his first attack and fired and then when the first vehicle burst into flames, we could also then make out the other vehicles but I'm sure if we'd flown past there, we would never have seen the vehicles. So it was his experience that helped up and so we also became quite experienced. >> There were solo missions. >> Say again. >> Solo missions, or did you fly alongside? >> No, flight of four. >> Four. >> We're normally a flight of four and then we did the big [INAUDIBLE] we did on Pyongyang, we had 64. We had the biggest with 64 aircraft. >> Sixty four aircraft? Not all South African though? >> Oh, no, no, no, no. The three American squadrons and our squadron, so we make up a quarter of the squadron. >> And how many losses did you suffer from that one, out of the 64? >> On that one we lost the one pilot. It was quite a sad loss because at the time he was a South African high jumping champion, you know. >> What's a high jumping champion? >> Pardon. >> Can you explain to me about the jumper? You said lost his ... >> An athletic high jumping when you have two poles and a crossbar. >> And he was a champion? >> At that stage he started with an American roll, I think it was called, [INAUDIBLE] quite a lot now [INAUDIBLE] they sort of go over on their back to cross the crossbar, but his record stood for several years after that. South African high jumping record. >> Did he [INAUDIBLE]? >> That was a sad loss. He would have made a very good rugby player. He was a great rugby player, also. Twenty years old. >> He got shot down? His plane got shot down? >> Say again. >> His plane got shot down? His plane? >> Yes, yes, yes. He called up, he said, "I've been hit. I'm heading for the coast but I don't think I'll make it," and then he was cut off. I think the aircraft possibly burst into flames or so. >> Do you know when that happened? When the pilot's aircraft is down and his body is burned, then how do you retrieve the remains? >> Oh, no. There are very few remains. We lost quite a percentage of our pilots, which never recovered because [INAUDIBLE] it's on the other side of the bomb line. >> Not even the dog tags? >> No. Very, very few were recovered if they were near the bomb line, you know. The diving line between enemy forces and our own forces. No, I can't quote you the numbers now. I know of a person, I got close friends with him, he was a captain and a very experienced pilot from World War II. I think later on the area where he went down, had been recovered and was in our own friendly territory. They traced the remains, and he was buried in the memorial cemetery down in Pusan. >> I will be going there. >> Is it? >> Yes. >> Well there you will see, I can't remember off hand now, possibly seven or so of the graves. And the other people who were not recovered because they were too far into enemy territory. >> I'm going to the memorial today. >> Say again. >> I'm going to the memorial today, and I will pay my respects. >> Oh, I appreciate that. >> Thank you so much. >> My pleasure.
>> My name is Denis Earp, Earp as in Wyatt Earp. I'm now 86 years old, but in 1950, when the Korean War broke out, I was still only 20, and I hadn't finished my flying training, but the government of South Africa asked for volunteers because for once, the United Nations was able to function as it should, by a pure accident of the Soviets having become angry at something or other, and so they didn't attend. Now at the time, the government decided that the best thing to do would be to send a fighter squadron. Having made some arrangements with the Americans so that we would pay for everything we used, all armament, fuel, aircraft, equipment, everything because all of us were volunteers, which I think makes it a little different story for many other countries. 1950, I spent in great tension following the progress of the Korean War down from the 38th Parallel down to the Pusan perimeter, the breakout at Imjin, the pursuit northwards because I was worried the war would be over before I could get there. I was a second lieutenant, as I said, still on flying training, and I didn't get my wings until December of 1950. Straight after that, Spitfire conversion and operational conversion, and then as soon as we could, we went to Korea, which I reached the end of May, 1951. Now it's a time long ago. Things are different now, but make no mistake. The Korean War was not a quarrel. It was a very big, very important, very violent war, and it made a point in stopping Soviet aggression because the manipulation of Korea was just a byproduct of the Cold War. China and Russia knew what was coming, and they were hoping to break the West's monopoly of resistance in the West. Strangely enough, I think it happened because an American foreign minister made a statement which the Chinese particularly misinterpreted. In an interview in, I think, the early '50s, he said which areas were vital for America, and he named them all over the West, but he did not mention Korea, so the Chinese and the North Koreans interpreted this as being a disengagement on the part of the United States, which it most definitely was not. But America was totally unprepared. When the Korean War broke out, South Korea was not ready for it. It was almost a miracle that the American logistics could reinforce the Pusan perimeter and mobilize allied forces quickly enough to stop having to retreat to Japan because then I think it would have been a very, very long war. In any case, as a second lieutenant, not a student of politics, just a young man, stupid as all young men are, I ended up in a very hot war. As a second lieutenant, my probability of surviving the first few combat missions were low, but you learn very quickly, or you don't survive, and quite a few of my friends were killed. Older and more experienced pilots were killed, and that's a bit of a shock to the system of a young man because you keep believing, "It cannot happen to me," but it does. And on my 65th combat mission, there was a Communist flat gunner who got lucky, and he shot me down, not immediately there, but I was able to fly for about 20 minutes, trying to get back to the lines, but I had a small fire in the cockpit. My feet were burning, and when I got to the point where I'd lost a lot of height, I knew I had to crash-land or bail out. Now the mountains in Korea are not conducive to safe forced landings, so I bailed, and I injured myself, and I had burned feet. I twisted my knee badly on landing, and 7 hours later, I was taken prisoner by the Chinese and then began a little more than 23 months of an experience which I wouldn't wish on anybody. To be a prisoner of the Communists is not a happy state of affairs, and I came very close to dying on several occasions, but by the grace of God, I didn't, and I was released after the armistice which was in July of 1953. I got out in August of '53 and was able to return home in reasonable shape, perhaps a little puzzled in my mind and a little troubled in my memories. So the war ended for me, but that war has not ended for Korea, and I think there's misery ahead for a long time. I hope it'll end peacefully, but I hope it'll still end in my lifetime, but it may not. >> Can you explain to us a little bit about your day-to-day experience at the POW camps? Because not a lot of people know what it means to be a prisoner of war. What did you eat? Were you able to wash yourself? Were you with other prisoners of war? How were the conditions like? How did you survive? >> Well, first of all, prisoners were not a common ... I beg your pardon. It's just my cell phone beeping. Prisoners were not at the moment very popular. They weren't prepared for them, neither the North Koreans nor the Chinese. Food, inadequate. No medical attention at all unless you were termed a progressive. If you offered any form of resistance or failed to cooperate, you were then classed as a reactionary, and the reactionaries didn't have a great future. So if in interrogation you resisted, remember that we'd been indoctrinated in the West to believe in the Geneva Convention. To the Chinese and the North Koreans, that was like a red flag to a bull, and immediately, if you pressed your point, you would end up in a hole in the ground, as I often did, tied with your elbows behind your back. Very little food. When it came, you ate like a dog, and your bodily functions were not catered for. You can imagine what that does to your morale after a few days but then if you're taken out and interrogation starts again or lessons. "You must study to learn the truth," was the big Communist message, and if you learn the truth, then you will have a happy daily life and we will take care of you. But if you didn't want to learn the truth and if you resisted, life was not pleasant. In the first winter at a place called [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] which was across on the Yalu River, a little way from the camp that I ended up in, about 1,500 men died, a lack of medicine, a lack of medication, a lack of food and extremely low temperatures, and the horror of that camp was that the ground was too hard to bury those who died, so they had to be laid on top of the ground and stacked until the spring came, and then they could be buried. Now that kind of environment doesn't do good for your ego. It's oppressive, and men sometimes cracked. They just couldn't take it anymore, and then they faced to the wall. Three days, they would die. We lightheartedly called it give-up-itis, but it was a serious problem. The mind definitely controls your body. If your mind says, "You've had enough. Die," you will die. If your mind says, "No. Let's stay with it. You've got a good chance of survival," and there was a lot of luck as an element. In the beginning as a prisoner, I was regularly interrogated, and we had to sit and listen to lectures every day. But later, I think particularly the Chinese realized that they were not getting anywhere, and they left us on our own. The North Koreans were particularly brutal captors. I spent a few weeks at an interrogation center outside of [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] which we called Park's Palace. Now Major Park was a very sadistic man, and he enjoyed torturing people, and torture might have been pleasant from his point of view, but it was not pleasant from the prisoner's point of view. But with a bit of luck, I survived Park's Palace. I survived a march from Pyongyang up to the Yalu River on foot and with prisoners who were not in good physical shape, and on that March, numerous prisoners died, again, bad physical condition, cold weather. The first snows came in. I was in a summer flying suit, and I got very cold, and I learned to my own horror that if I never saw snow again, pleasant as it may be to many people, I would not be sad at all. In brief, it was not a pleasant experience. I survived on the march when I got dysentery, and a friend of mine supported because if you got left behind, you knew that as soon as the group had moved along, there'd be a shot, and that would be the end. And my friend, Mikheli, physically helped me to survive the last few days until we got to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. Unfortunately, he did at the cost of his own health because he was then diagnosed with a very, very poor heart, and after we got back to South Africa, a few months later, he died. So I owe him a life, but he gave his willingly. So that's, in brief, the story of a long time. >> You said General Park tortured. We don't understand what kind of torture you're talking. Can you explain what kind of torture? >> Well, if, for example, he wanted immediate information, such as if a prisoner had attempted to escape, then automatically, that meant it was a capitalist plot, and now you had to tell everything. Now one of the forms which was very unpleasant, they would tie you to a chair, kick the chair over backwards, put a cloth over your face and pour water on the cloth, which then sticks to your face, and you can't get breath. And after you've struggled a while, you lose consciousness, and when you come to, you're now sitting upright, coughing out water, and you get your breath back, and now we can do it all over again until you decide that you're going to give the information which they want. That was one form. Other forms were just direct beating. Some people were hung by their thumbs from a bin, and of course, they dislocated thumbs, dislocated shoulders, so physical torture is something that is not pleasant, and prisoners required a great deal of strength of character to endure and continue to resist. It didn't always help to lie because lies, as often do [INAUDIBLE]. So let's say that being put in a hole without food and water and tied up for a few days is also torture. Then that's not pleasant either. >> Were you able to wash yourselves? >> Not when you're in the hole. You had nothing. You mess yourself, and that does bad things to your morale. When you're not being interrogated or being punished, then you're with a group of prisoners who are all classed as reactionaries. In there, you had a reasonable chance of acting normally, bearing in mind that in a Communist system, there are always informers, and you don't know who they are, and the system works in this way that they ask the one informer what happened in that room on that morning, who said what, and he gives a report. Then they've got another informer who informer one doesn't know, and they ask him the same questions so the two informers can cross inform and get the truth. So you were never free to speak, even to your friends. If you wanted to speak, you would walk onto the open ground in front of the schoolhouse, which was prison, and there you could talk, but you had to be very careful because you could be turned in easily. >> Did they speak English? How did they interrogate you? >> Well ... >> Chinese or Korean ... >> Chinese ... >> They spoke English? >> Yeah. Some of them very good English. Some had been educated in universities in England and America. >> Okay. >> The Koreans also spoke very good English, and of course, there were always Russians that you knew were there because Russians smoked a cigarette which had a cardboard for the mouthpiece, so if you saw a couple of those lying on the ground, you knew Russians were giving the Chinese or the Koreans the questions to ask. >> And what kind of questions did they ask? >> Luckily, most of them were very stupid questions. Initially, they wanted to know, what squadron were you? Who was the squadron commander? Who was the second-in-command? How many men in your flight? How many airplanes? What kind of airplanes? How fast? How high? How many guns? How many bombs? How many rockets? Which are of no value except tactically, and after a few days, that interrogation has no further value except it builds up a pattern that the person being interrogated is going to answer, and I didn't realize that until right in the beginning. I had never been briefed [INAUDIBLE]. "What is your father's name?" I said, "That's got nothing to do with you." "Oh, you are not cooperating." "No, I'm not cooperating." "I'm sticking to the Geneva Convention." Then we get a long lecture on the lenient policy in which you not be killed, you will not be maltreated, provided you cooperate. Now on the question of my father's name, the guy was very polite about it. He said, "All right. If you won't answer, we will give you a little time to think about it," and they put me in a hole in the ground, and they tied me up, and they let me stay there for 2 days, and when I came out, the interrogator said, "Have you thought?" I said, "Yes, I've thought." He said, "And what is the answer? What is your father's name?" And I said, "I'm not going to tell you. It's got nothing to do with you." He said, "Come." He marched me up a hill with a squad of soldiers, stood me up against a tree. He didn't have the soldiers point a gun at me. He took out his pistol, and he cocked it, and he said, "Would you like a blindfold?" And I said, "No, thank you," and he aimed the pistol between my eyes, and he pulled the trigger, and it went click. I'll tell you, that's an incredible psychological letdown when you think you're going to die and you don't. So along that pattern, I realized, if there's a question, you've got to have an answer. Whether it's a lie or not is immaterial, but you will answer, and that's how interrogation builds up. Always the small questions first and then later the political questions, and that's what they were interested in, but we were not politicians. We were professional soldiers, second lieutenants who knew very little about a lot of things, but we survived. >> So did you eventually give your father's name? >> I gave my father's name. >> I think I heard that some of your worst torturers were women. Tell me about that. >> No, I never had women torturers. There were women nurses that we saw in the hospitals, but we never got to a hospital because we were reactionaries. >> And about lice. >> Lice? >> Dealing with lice because you weren't showering. >> Well, lice is something I'd never had in my life, but after being along on a march and stop at a village, they put you in a room. The next morning, you itch, and the itch gets worse, and then somebody says, "The reason you're itching is you've got lice," so if you've got a spare minute, get into your clothes, find the lice and kill them. It makes you feel better, and you can imagine if you're tied up, the torture of having lice all over you. For somebody who's not used to it, maybe for the locals it didn't matter, but for me, it meant a lot. >> And some prisoners had to eat lice to survive, I heard. >> Well, you ate whatever you could. If you could take something clean off the side of the road in the summer, eat it because your food was essentially two bowls, small bowls, of rice per day, but on that you actually suffering from avitaminosis, beriberi, eye night blindness, illness for which you could be given medicine if you were not a reactionary. >> And in the camp, were you mixed with other nationalities? >> Yes, mainly Americans, but in the camp I was in, there were some Turks. There were Filipinos, the South Africans, and I'm trying to think who else. My memory is not as good as it should be, possibly because I don't think back to those days with any great pleasure. >> Were you mixed? >> Yes. >> Or were you segregated? >> Mixed. >> Mixed. >> Interrogation, solitary, only by yourself. >> I hope many survived like you did. >> South Africans, eight. >> Out of how many prisoners of war? >> Eight. >> There were eight prisoners of war, but they all survived? >> South Africans, yes. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> The last man was shot down 3 days before armistice, and he was perhaps the luckiest guy ever because he lost 40 pounds in weight in 40 days, and he was never seriously interrogated. >> On armistice, which was July 27th, 1953, you were released? >> Not then. We got released much later. I had made a mistake early on when I was a prisoner. They said, "You are an officer." I said, "Yeah, second lieutenant, very senior." They said, "You must know many things about what bombs do." I said, "I suppose so." They said, "Well, we are subject to unwarranted attacks by the Americans and the Wall Street warmongers, so you will now show us how to build a bombproof bomb shelter." I said, "Okay." So I explained to them how I thought a bomb shelter should be built quite incorrectly, but I then was the foreman, and the Chinese built according to my directions, and we'd almost finished when we were attacked by fighters from my wing, and the bomb shelters collapsed, as I knew they would, but when I was in the bomb shelter, I stuck close to the wall. The guard went in deep and when the shelter collapsed broke his back and killed him. So then I spent a very unpleasant few days being beaten up, and after that, I built the bomb shelters, and our whole platoon of Chinese, they were the supervisors. And because of that, I was tried by a Chinese court. I was given a defense lawyer who pleaded for the death penalty, and he got it. They sentenced me to death for sabotage, but then they said they would not execute the sentence yet, but every time I went for interrogation after that, they'd remind me, and that's why I didn't get released too quickly after armistice, and I didn't know if they would release me until the very end. So I got released in the end of August. >> One month later. >> Mm-hmm. >> But did you know that there was an armistice signed? >> I knew there was an armistice. >> How were you informed about it? >> Well, first of all, we notice stoppage of air flights, the first thing. Then we noticed the Chinese were not quite so hostile. Within 2 days, they formed us up on the playground, and we knew they were going to announce armistice, and we as prisoners said, "Don't show any emotion." So the Chinese commander got up and spoke in Chinese, and then it gets translated into English, and nobody moved. The Chinese commander got very angry and yelled at the interpreter and said, "Did you tell them?" And he said, "Yes," and he told us again, and nobody moved, and this puzzled the Chinese no end. They couldn't understand it, and it gave us a great deal of satisfaction. >> So you all planned this. >> We planned it. >> Wow. All different nationalities, you all just remained calm. >> And that included the people we knew were informers and traitors because they knew we'd tear them to pieces if they didn't. >> Did they come back? Did they return? >> I believe quite a few of them faced court marshals in the States, at any rate. Sad, but that's how people are. You look after yourself. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> When you're starving, you can bribe a man very easily with a bowl of very inferior food or maybe some medicine for serious illnesses. >> Oh, show your hands. It breaks my heart. >> We're not sure what caused that, but it damaged the skin, and I think that was because at one stage in the winter when it was very, very cold, they would stand me outside and tie me to a pole with no cover for my hands, and they'd wait just until the frostbite started, and then they would take me into a warm room. Now I don't know if you've ever had frostbite, but when it thaws, it is extremely painful, and this was a very easy way that didn't threaten my life but softened me. You tend to become less resistant when you're treated that way. In any case, I survived those days, and I came back, and I managed to survive another war which lasted 20 years, and in the end, I ended up as the chief of the Air Force, so I couldn't really complain about my career. >> A general. >> From second lieutenant to a general. >> But most of all, that's just so fascinating because most people ... You didn't just go fight and return, but you suffered for almost 2 years as a prisoner, like you said, with your morale, usurping the dignity out of the human being. Most people would want nothing to do with any war, period, so why did you decide to stay in the military in the force? >> Well, I found that I'd enjoyed my part of the war. I didn't like the part being a prisoner, but by accident of circumstances, I had several flight commanders shut down, and there were no replacements, so they made me as a second lieutenant an acting flight commander, and I found I had an aptitude for leading a flight in combat and achieving great success in attacks on ground targets. So when I came back, I had a choice. I could leave, or I could stay, but at that stage, things were reasonably peaceful, and my option would have been to go to airways and fly as an airline pilot, but my nature was not of that ilk. It wouldn't have worked for me, so I stayed, and it wasn't long in this troubled country that we were in conflict again. So I found I had a natural aptitude for military operations, and that's why I stayed. >> And you said you went back to Korea. Could you just briefly explain your first impression? >> 1986, I in fact went on an official visit to Taiwan, and while we were there, we contacted Mr. [INAUDIBLE] who was the then Korean minister of, I think, prisoner affairs, and he said, "Well, why don't you come and visit? Officially, we cannot admit you." They had just at that time refused entry to our minister of defense and our minister of foreign affairs, but in my case, they decided I should go. They treated me like a king. We'd be riding in an elevator up to that very tall building in Seoul 65 floors high, and Mr. [INAUDIBLE] would say to the people, "This man here is a veteran of the Korean War," and they would all smile and come and want to shake my hand, and then he said, "And he was shot down and was a prisoner for 2 years," and then they all wanted to hug me. That's how they were. They were just grateful to see a veteran of the Korean War. They treated me like royalty. The Air Force invited me to a dinner. I was able to lay a wreath at a memorial for the Cluster Regiment on the Imjin River, and as I said, it was a wonderful experience to see the Korea which was devastated rebuilt. And it's interesting. People ask me, "You go to a Korean War, and you didn't even win. What did you achieve?" I say, "Well, let's look at this way. North Korea is the most repressive Stalinist country in the world where there is no freedom, great human rights violations and terrible abuses of people. South Korea is the most progressive open society that you can imagine, and you say we didn't win? I think we did." >> I think so too. >> Good. >> Actually, I know so because I'm here. >> All right. But remember, I was talking then in 1986. I know things have changed a bit now, but South Korea is still prospering. I think your economy is about third or fourth in the world, and I'm glad. >> Well, I hope you're very proud. >> Thank you. >> Thank you.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We were invited in 2010 to go to Korea with my wife. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When I was injured back in the war, I took an ambulance that went past the Han River. >> One bridge [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There was only one bridge that was about to be collapsed. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> But when I went back in 2010, I saw there were 29 bridges on the river, and I was really impressed. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He's saying all the Korean people are really polite and hardworking. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> One day, they took us to a village. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It was 75 kilometers away from Seoul. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It represented Korea 100 years ago. They made a village to present that old time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It was sort of a museum where they created a scenario of Korea 100 years ago where kids would go to learn about Korean history. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When I went there, I saw kids sit down in the [INAUDIBLE] and the teachers would explain them about the history of Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And after the teacher told the kids about the stories, the kids started running towards us, and they started hugging us and kissing our hand. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There was one really handsome kid. I think he was around 13 years old. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He hugged me and kissed my hand. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And he looked up to me and said, "Atatürk." >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when I looked, the teacher was waving. She was waving her hand. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The teacher basically told them about the Turkish soldiers, how they lived thousands of miles away, but they came to our country and fought for us, and their leader was Atatürk, and she told this, and he cried. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I went to his mausoleum in Ankara, yes.
>> You saved. They remember you too. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He's really happy, and he's hoping that South Korea stays strong. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He's telling you that ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... when he went back to Korea, he realized the kids these days are taller and bigger [INAUDIBLE]. >> Aw, don't cry. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Oh, thank you. Do you remember me from 2009 when you visited Korea? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He went to Korea in 2012. >> Oh, '12. >> He didn't go in 2009. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When they were coming back from Korea, they went really fast. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When the plane landed really hard on the ground, all five of us lost our balance really hard, and it did to us something that [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> People who see us might look at his age, but he's still [INAUDIBLE]. >> Oh, thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Okay.
>> You saved. They remember you too. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He's really happy, and he's hoping that South Korea stays strong. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He's telling you that ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... when he went back to Korea, he realized the kids these days are taller and bigger [INAUDIBLE]. >> Aw, don't cry. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Oh, thank you. Do you remember me from 2009 when you visited Korea? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He went to Korea in 2012. >> Oh, '12. >> He didn't go in 2009. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When they were coming back from Korea, they went really fast. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When the plane landed really hard on the ground, all five of us lost our balance really hard, and it did to us something that [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> People who see us might look at his age, but he's still [INAUDIBLE]. >> Oh, thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Okay.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He's the leader or the president of his association, and he's a retired veteran. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> "And I am a veteran from [INAUDIBLE]." >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This association started in 1984 for the [INAUDIBLE] and Korean War Veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This association started [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] the small room. In 2004, the government allowed this building to give ... Gave this building for the veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And the current population of this building is 2,005 people. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And 200 people of these people are from the Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> The youngest of these Korean veterans, he is 86 years old, and about 70 percent of these people can't even walk and are currently staying here. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This room is made for the Korean Veterans for them to meet once every week on Thursday to spend their time and meet with each other. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And from the objects they gave us ...
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Menetia Urstik. >> My name is Menetia Urstik. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> In 1950, I went to Korea. >> On November 29th, I was shipped from Ankara to ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> From İskenderun, we took the [INAUDIBLE] ship and went to Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And from the Black Sea to the Columbia then eventually we landed in Pusan. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the US soldiers and Korean citizens greeted us in Pusan Port. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And with the train, we went to take off. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> First 15 days of training in [INAUDIBLE] were at the [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And once they reached the [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When they reached Manchuria, they got an order saying that ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They said that [INAUDIBLE] right away because 300,000 Chinese soldiers were coming. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And it was really difficult in the hillside to go with the cars because the roads weren't properly done, and we did our best to reach the Korean hospital. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> My commanding officer who passed away in that war told me that everyone should be really careful because all the soldiers. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Around 10:30 that night, the Chinese soldiers started attacking us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And we lost a lot of people in that, and there was a command that told us to [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the command was for all of them to go to a different town as fast as possible. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And even though we saw a lot of our friends die that day, we had the command to shoot our bombs towards them as soon as possible. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And they were shooting their bombs more towards the enemy soldiers, and they were [INAUDIBLE] and then he saw bodies flying around in that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And we fought until the morning, and we received a command saying that US soldiers were coming to support us, and we saw the US planes, and we kept on fighting through the entire night and also in the morning. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the Chinese soldiers were taking the corpses of the Turks and the US soldiers and hanging them where they can see them and burning them and shouting at them. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And we were about to engage because our soldiers were really mad, but then the US soldiers signaled the enemy side [INAUDIBLE] with a little piece of paper, and he was [INAUDIBLE] that area, and the enemy soldiers started [INAUDIBLE] more silent, and they had to cover themselves, and that's when we had to [INAUDIBLE] backwards. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And [INAUDIBLE] backwards, and again, when they came for us, we fought for 24 hours, and we basically protected a specific US unit in that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And that was the reason the US Army gave the Turkish unit the Silver Star because they didn't fall back or separate. They stick together in order to protect the 25th Unit of the US Army in that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And they found a little kid by himself, and his commander officer leaned in. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Ila. >> They named him Ila, and they protected him during that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And after a year where we had to leave, another soldier [INAUDIBLE] took care of the little kid in that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when they were treating, and they saw a lot of Korean citizens trying to run away just like the Syrian people trying to get away and find shelter, and they gave, the soldiers gave them, more than they had in order to support them, and they kept receiving thank-yous and Korean [INAUDIBLE] from them. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The biggest losses were [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The biggest losses were ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> One of the battles, most, actually all my unit died, including my commanding officer in that battle, but I was able to get away. I was 100 meters behind one of my friends who was caught in that fight, and he was captured, and after that ambush, the US soldiers attacked the next battle and found out that he was a Turkish soldier, and they sent him to Japan to get treated for 3 months in the hospital. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And from his unit, only him and he survived. He went to find him in Turkey when he went back, but he couldn't find his address, and he couldn't see his friend. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was born in '29. I'm 88 years old. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE].
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> My name is Ibrahim Gulek. >> Ibrahim Gulek [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I went to South Korea in [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It took us 23 days to go to Korea with ship. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> First when we went, we were the [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When we first landed in Pusan port, we were exhausted for the long trip, and they let us rest for 2 days. Then we had to go to the war zone right after with a train. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We were going with a train, but the railroads were a little broken, and that caused the ride to be really slow because we couldn't go fast because of the railroads. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when he first saw the Korean kids, he was surprised because they didn't have any clothes during the winter, and he thought the kids were able to withstand the cold because that was the first time they saw kids wearing basically nothing in this cold weather. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There was food, Turkish bread and meat in the middle. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He would basically give the food, and they would all try to take the food, basically, and they would take the food from someone else's mouth. That was how the situation was. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when they saw this, they didn't think about their own deaths at all. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When we first reached the war zone, we had to dig our own cover ourselves. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> All our hands were all destroyed and bruised because of digging a lot. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We were walking around underground. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the gun was 7.5 kilograms that we were carrying everywhere with us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I could not shoot anywhere. It was a long-range rifle, and I had seven targets that I had to hit. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And his lieutenant told him to shoot a specific target, but he had 200 bullets in his gun, in his rifle, and he would keep shooting at the area, but he could not see anything because of the dark. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when he shoots a lot of bullets, the rifle gets really hot, and he has to change rifle as well. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And he constantly changed those rifles and put one of them underground in order to cool down. Then every night, he would spend around 1,500 bullets shooting at those targets. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And he went [INAUDIBLE] basically, and he would shoot at those areas, but he told his lieutenant that he could not see anything. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the lieutenant told him that tomorrow morning, you'll see what you were shooting at. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And it's nighttime, and he went to the lieutenant, and he was sleeping in his bed. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The lieutenant in the night, he went to his lieutenant, and ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... he took the binoculars. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He looked through the binoculars to see what he was shooting at. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when he looked through the binoculars, he saw a huge hill, but when he looked closely, he realized that it was all corpses, actually, human bodies that were put together up there. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Every district or area unit had one phone [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It was for them shooting the crossfire so that the enemy could not dodge or go towards one area. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And also, they would shoot in a crossfire [INAUDIBLE] bombed area, and he would see the trees that were full of holes, basically. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the [INAUDIBLE] were actually good in every way. He's seen that. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And in the medallion ceremony where they had their pulling rope game, he was part of that as well against the US military. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Basically, it was 10 US soldiers and 10 Turkish veterans, and there was water in the middle, and they were playing who would pull the other side to the water. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> So the Turkish soldiers dug in the ground with ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> So their tactic was, they know that US soldiers were bigger and larger and stronger than them, so they basically at least threw up a little bit, and once they were losing their balance, they would pull in that time, and they won the pulling game with that tactic. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> In the war ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] basically they were English soldiers a lot, but they were hiding in the bushes to try to pull it back, but the Turkish soldiers would just charge in even though they did not fear anything, and he forced himself to go straight in the line and under pushes that that's why the Turkish soldiers won that small battle in the area. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And in the medal ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... for every Turkish soldier, a US soldier would accommodate that person and buy food and take him around, and a high-ranking officer was chosen for him. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] after I went back to ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Back in those days ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... they would exchange mail. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Ask him about Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And he's talking about the time when they were in the forest, and there were a lot of Korean citizens as well because they could not live in those houses because of the bombing and attack, and a lot of Turkish soldiers would take their food and everything and give it to the Korean citizens who were living in those forests with them. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> But the US soldiers thought that we were selling the food to the Korean citizens ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... and asked whether we had money or not from all the food that we gave. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The soldiers thought that the Turkish soldiers were selling because they did not think that they would give their own everything to the Korean citizens, and that's why US citizens were suspicious of Turkish soldiers, but once they realized and asked the Korean citizens that they had no money or anything, they just gave the food for free to the Korean citizens, they thought that the Turkish soldiers were kind of stupid because they were going to be weaker, and they left without finding anything. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The Koreans loved us a lot, and it feels like we're blood brothers, basically. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They went back to Korea in 1999. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And when they landed, they were going to go see the places they fought at. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And they turned those houses into museums, and he was going towards those area with other veterans as well. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And the graveyards. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And there were 165 ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And he's talking about ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... when he was in a tank in the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He's talking about when he went back to the graveyards of the other people who died. He saw one of his friends who died in a tent when they were together, and there was a bullet shrapnel that fell from the top, and one went towards his friend, so his friend died, and he saw his grave when he went back, and he cried when he saw that. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He was a really good person that passed away, his friend. >> Is he buried in the United Nations Pusan Cemetery? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Tell him, "What is his name?" >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Sebatin. >> Sebatin. >> Sebatin. His last name? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Tell him, when I go to the United Nations Pusan Cemetery, I'll visit him too. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He is actually not in the [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He prayed to Allah in that graveyard. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> People were wondering why would he do it, but he said, "I don't care. I want to pray." >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And he sees himself online where he's praying in the graveyard for the ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Basically, he's seen on the Internet that he went back after 60 years and saw his friends, and he prayed for God.
[FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My name is Mehmed Aziz Achman [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My first time was 1950. I went to Korea for the first time. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I participated both of those wars. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We were [INAUDIBLE]. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We had a furious war in that area. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We lost 600 people trying to get out of that crossfire. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [INAUDIBLE] Korean War, we entered the second war [INAUDIBLE] I think. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And in the first war, the Chinese soldiers who ambushed them, we fought them and won them in the second war. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And I'm going to talk about how I saw Korea when I went there. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Majority of the towns or cities, it has the population at the front naming this is the city's name, but it was all dirt and nothing else. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My first time when I saw the Korea was demolished, and everything was in ruins, but when I went back to Korea in 2012, I saw a whole new Korea that was really well and strong in every way. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And the last time that I went ... The last interview talked about the medallions the Korean War veterans received. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And I'd like to talk about that as well. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> In Second World War ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> The 25th unit in the Second World War, the American unit, received this medallion. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And this medal for the first time was given to Turkish soldiers as well ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> ... as a high achievement as a soldier for the Turkish soldiers. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> When I went to Korea for the first time, they told us the Korean alphabet has 480 letters, and the Korean alphabet was made of vines basically, but when I was Korea, everyone knew how to write and read, and that surprised me. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And the Korean climate is similar to Turkish climate, and I really do enjoy my stay in Korea. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> After the Korean War, the Korean citizens also withdrew with us. Thousands of people went back with us. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He's talking about about Korean War when all the citizens have to withdraw backwards, and he remembers women trying to carry some rice balls on their head and some kids on their bags, and he also remembers kids that were lost trying to find their parents or the old people who could not go back stranded on the ground dying basically. No one could help them because everyone was in chaos, and he remembers all these. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And these people were trying to get away from the Chinese soldiers, and they had nothing to carry, so they basically tied two huge sticks in order to carry their few belongings and run away from that area. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And he's talking about how little kids, even in the winter, they only had a T-shirt on them, and they would talk to us, saying hello and chap chap, which means they wanted to food, and he remembers all these, and he remembers all the poverty and the destruction. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And every time I remember this, it's hard ... It's getting hard to talk for me. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We would give all our food and clothing to kids that were without because we couldn't ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> In Suwon, the war was really strong, and we met a family in Suwon. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> There were three [INAUDIBLE]. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> They would wash our clothes, and we would give them all the food we have, the canned foods we have. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> An elder woman and a male. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> The man who was there, he lost his arm in the war and his wife, and they had three kids as well. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And the grandmother, one of her ... The middle finger was really bloated, and it was full of blood, and it was about to explode basically. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And she was in great pain. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And he gave her his medicine and a bandage for her. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And that bandage needed ... The bloating slowed, and it eventually healed slowly. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And they became really close with this family, and after that war, the family asked them to take us with you guys, but we were soldiers, and we couldn't take them. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And the day we had to leave Korea, the entire family came to us, and they were crying. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And I become really old, and every time I tell these stories, my heart breaks, and I feel really soft, and I can't stop myself from crying. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And it's been actually 67 years since all these, and I'm losing some of the memories, but still there are so many things that should be told, but it's really hard to even talk about them. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And when we reached Busan Port, I counted 36 US military ships. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And US ... He's saying US military send all those ships because they didn't believe Korea could win this war, and they were getting ready to ... Evacuation planning was getting ready for the US soldiers. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> They sent [INAUDIBLE] war, so that they could withdraw their own soldiers and send us to the front line. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And after our war in Korean War, our achievement, US soldiers realized that this could be won, and that's how ... That's when they realized that this good war, and they started fighting properly. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And I used to write diary every day before I became a soldier, and even though I went there, I kept on writing every day. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> First, I'd like to talk about the diaries and all the things that we wrote. One of our general's son took all these records and made us writing. They turned into writing, and he also wants to talk about that only three people know, his general and his lieutenant. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [INAUDIBLE] different district. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Basically, he used to be a messenger in the first war, and his general told him to go to a different district and tell them to join them because they need to get out of the crossfire that they were receiving, and they were planning for the next stage to get out together, but when he went to the other district, the leading commander of that area said, "You didn't see us here." He tried to ignore the order, and he said, "But this was order of the general," but he still ignored the command, and he had to go back to his general to report this, but the next day they had to fight out of that crossfire to get out, but that district didn't help them, and basically they had to get out without the help of the second district, which was really difficult for them. They lost a lot of people and ammo and vehicles as well in that. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And when he was talking, the son of the general was writing all this stuff, recording all the diaries and everything that soldiers wrote. He told him to tell him all these stories that were not told before because they were hidden. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And my son was with me as well. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And that son of the general is going to tell all these stories and record the videos as well, but it was 6 years ago to record. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And apparently he remembered his diary and everything that he faced, he wrote every single thing in those diaries. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And he turned all those into a book basically. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Wow. Wow. >> This is his diary. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And he's giving this to you. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I talk too much. >> No, thank you.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> My name is Asam Kanat, and I was born in [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Our unit went to Korea in 1952, and we stayed there over 13 months, and I was part of the medical team. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And we had a hospital at the war zone, and we would treat injured soldiers, and if it was a really serious injury, we would take them back to the city. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We were mostly in the hospital, but we would see Korean people once in a while, and we would talk to them a little bit. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I went to Seoul and Pusan, but most of my time was taking injured soldiers to hospitals or moving them to the required place. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Has he ever been to Korea? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Afterwards? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It's been 64 years since I was in Korea, so I don't remember much. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> His friend was able to. It was for veterans [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> But I was sick, and I could not go to Korea again. >> Okay.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And this association is also a museum for the people. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And this establishment was sponsored by a Korean firm called N11. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And this N11 company, the Korean company, helped us a lot. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Me and all the Korean veterans are really happy with all the Koreans who have supported us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And their constant attention and help towards us always makes up happy. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And today, allowing us to interview with us and allowing us to tell our story also makes us really happy. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And as the president of this association, I'm really glad and happy that you guys are showing this kind of attention towards us. >> Thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE].
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> My name is [INAUDIBLE]. I am the president of Turkish War Veterans Association, and I am a retired [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thank you very much for your interview with our Korean War veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They went to Korea and fought for the freedom of your country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Twenty-one thousand two hundred and thiry-one Turkish soldiers participated in the Korean War in 1950. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We sent or Turkey sent 5,520 soldier to Korea to serve after the ceasefire. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Turkish soldiers stayed in Korea 21 years. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Eight hundred and ninety-two Turkish soldiers died during the Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Nowadays, 2,500 Korean War veterans are alive. They are living. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They are proud and pleased to fight for your country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Some of the Korean war veterans, Turkish Korean War veterans, took the word Korea as a last name, like [INAUDIBLE] or [INAUDIBLE] son of Korea. They took as a last name. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> One of the Korean War veteran's daughter's name is [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Some of the Korean War veterans' business office name is [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] means from Korea or Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Our soldiers fought in Korea as a hero. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> During the fight, changed the fate of Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Heroism means to die whenever it is required. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We fought against the Chinese forces in Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Two hundred and thirty-four Turkish soldiers were prisoner. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Almost all of them, 234 Turkish soldiers, returned to their country [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> During the Korean War, Korea was in poverty, very poor. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Turkish soldiers shared their food with the Korean people during the Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They opened the [INAUDIBLE] for the orphans for the children that lost their father and mothers. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Turkish people learned Korean after the Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Turkish people like Korean people very much. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Nowadays, today Korea is a real rich country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Since Korea is a rich country, Korean War veterans are very happy to see it's a rich country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Korean government respect shows what we're feeling towards our Korean veterans. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We like Korea, and we continue to like Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We know that North Korea is a real threat for the world peace for the region, and we wish and hope that North and South Korea will be united, will be one country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE].
>> Okay. My name is Ali Jengis Tuko. I was born in 1927, and I was, in other words, 90 years old. I didn't know anything about Korea. Almost everybody didn't know anything because of the China occupy the Korea. Of course, we didn't know anything. After the wars, after the Korean battle, government asked volunteers to be sent to Korea. I was one of those volunteers. At that time, I was 26 years and first lieutenant. I was a young [INAUDIBLE]. Let me tell you something. When I went to Korea, I thought that everything is very bad, destroyed country. It was very bad ourselves. We wanted to help all the time. Because of that [INAUDIBLE] I went there myself twice. Everybody talk about our battles. As you know, the Turkish Army fought 14 battles, and especially three of them were very important. Kunuri then ... >> Vegas. >> Vegas later though. >> Kumyangjang. >> Kumyangjang, a battle very close to February. It was really very good victory. As you know, after the battles, more than 1,000 Chinese were killed, 1,734, if I am not mistaken. So we tried to do our best, but I am going to say now. It's very important. Nowadays, especially Americans, say it's a forgotten war for Korea. I say that never forget Korean War, so we will try to do our best not to be forgotten. Maybe you're going to help too. Forces, when we came together, in 2013, when we went to Korea to attend a meeting for the federation with my president together, so everybody is discussing, "What are we going to do?" As you know, the number of the Korean disappearing. Some associations calculated. They said, "We don't have enough numbers." Then we put it into words, what's going to do. Only president of the England's, British, said, "No, I will not come again here," and 21, they said, "yes." Then next year, that was, let me think, 2014. I went again with my friends. We were together. So we discussed it. Everybody said different alternatives of what should be done. Some said it should be delivered to our descendants. Some others said, "You must join another association." As you know, Turkey, I think, at the beginning did very best, so we didn't want only Korean War Veterans Association. We called it only Veterans Association, so we are very comfortable. Now especially some Korean people also wanted to join a veteran's association in that city. [INAUDIBLE]. >> Spacious. >> An old man, you see, Korean was giving a job to discuss this. He said, "We must join another associations." [INAUDIBLE]. The job was given to two veterans from New Zealand. They prepared a drop and sent it, dropped it here, but until now, nobody called us to do anything, but we don't know what we are going to do. We are waiting news from Korea. We expect that we go there and continue with the same associations, but we don't know it yet. >> Let's go back to your experience in the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Okay. Let me tell you something. It was terrible. I don't want to talk about it because everybody talk about it. It was not easy. >> But what did you ... >> Let me tell you something. Turkey tried to do its best. We did everything, everything. Also, we had the Koreans as well, you see, a shared effort with the Koreans. We shared. We took care of the orphans. We tried our best. One more thing, after coming back from Korea, I felt sympathy and all the Korean people when I was 26, but when they had passed, some are getting old, I always felt affection and sympathy for Korean. To me, all the Korean children are my grandchildren. You are my granddaughters [INAUDIBLE]. I love Korea. I love Korean people. Whatever they are, it's not important. I love all of them. That's why, you see, I wanted to talk about better things, but I will that we love Korea. Another thing, you see, of course, when I went to Korea, I was surprised. It was not Korea. It was something different. It was born from its ashes, like a phoenix, as you know. Some people say she lived 500 years. Some people say she lived 1,000 years, but after he died he born from her ashes again. So Korea did the same thing. I love Korea. What could I say? I love all of you. >> And we love Turkey too. Koreans love Turkey. >> That's why, you see, I didn't say bad things, but all the Turkish soldiers were heroes, many heroes around. >> Everyone, my American friends, every country, every soldier says Turkish soldiers were ... >> Everybody says so. Not only Turkish people do, everybody. >> ... very brave. Thank you so much, my captain.
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My name is Vila Acasoi. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was born in Kırıkkale in 1929. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I started my service in 1949, and I went to Korea in 1950. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was [INAUDIBLE] while I was serving in the Turkish Army, I heard that there was a war broke out in Korea, and to tell the truth, I didn't know the real place of Korea during that time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It took us 35 days to arrive in Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We stayed 1 week at one place. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We ... They took us by train to a military base [INAUDIBLE] Korea. We stayed there at least 1 month at this base, a Korean base. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> While we were in this Korean base, American warplanes were flying [INAUDIBLE] peace were flying over us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> After the Korean military base, military vehicles drove us to the Korean and the northern side of Korea. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We didn't think ... We didn't go the last step. We stayed in different places 1 week or 10 days. After our trip, we arrived to [INAUDIBLE] area. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And we participate in the Korean War. I'm sorry, the [INAUDIBLE] War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Through the war, I served as a medical personnel. Unfortunately, there were a lot of wounded people, were driven by the [INAUDIBLE] GMS in cars, trucks. And we Turkey [INAUDIBLE] wounded people were carried by the trucks. And the Turkish people were wounded, sort of wounded over there, and they were carried by the trucks backwards, and since he was the unit medical serviceman, he tended [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Chinese powers were [INAUDIBLE], were crowded. They surrounded units and wanted to destroy all of us completely, but it [INAUDIBLE] that report against them and pushed them back. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> One of the sergeant of company left him in a ... left him back, and their company forward to another place. He stayed at [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] they took the wounded soldiers in the truck, and they get on the [INAUDIBLE] trucks and started to drive in a northern side of Korea, and they didn't know where they go, those companies, and chaos ... and they ride the US base for a few days, the units. They gave the United ... some food to them and blanket for the night. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They stayed a few days over there, and then the Chinese forced attacked to the US units, and they went, let's say, left-hand side. They went right-hand side, Turkish troops or the trucks. They went through the base to a direction they don't know, they didn't know. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> During this chaos, chaotic situation, Americans tried to [INAUDIBLE], and they tried to go somewhere in other side, and unfortunately, at that time the Chinese forces try to destroy those soldiers at the line, [INAUDIBLE] line. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] forwards, or they could be thrown [INAUDIBLE] going back, [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> China's troops ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Wounded by Chinese forces were very crowded and attacked to the US forces. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I took one of the unit of the Army from the US people and give to the Turkish soldier and asked them to protect them so that they can go escape from that area, and ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] there were 100 US soldiers were over there, and we entered to the groups, and we started to go somewhere we didn't know, didn't know the area or direction we started to walk. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We walked now around for hours or 5 hours in the forest, but we didn't know the direction where it is. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They saw the [INAUDIBLE] footprint of the people and the footprint of the cars, so decided US troops went that direction, and we follow those prints. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And they were in the ... unfortunately, the Chinese forces around in this area in the forest, too. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> In the morning ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We went a group of the people into [INAUDIBLE] march. Unfortunately, we met a group. We didn't know who they were. They started to fire on us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was wounded in my ankle. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There was a ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There was a hit on my [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I tried to walk another direction to protect myself from the conflict, and I [INAUDIBLE] I didn't know where I went. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] morning ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... unfortunately, I met with the Chinese forces again. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They captured me. They captured me [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Fired at me, and I laid down. I pretend as if I died. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They come toward me. They check me, if I am live or dead. They said, "He is live." >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They took ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They took me somewhere, I think at least [INAUDIBLE]. I told myself that they would kill me, when I was expecting to kill me. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] I stayed at this place for 9 days. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE] 9 days later they took us to another place. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We didn't have food. We didn't have clothes. It was really cold. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And they looked us as if we were dog or an animal. They didn't give food or clothes. We didn't have clothes to protect myself, ourselves. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They were were shanty houses over there. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The South Korean people stayed close at those shanty houses, I think. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> But it was very dirty places. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They put us in those shanty houses. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> And we take off our clothes and put on [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They were ... I don't remember the English word. There were the insects, what you call [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We stayed ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We stayed at those houses I think 1 months or 2 months. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Says they were over there in the New Year time now. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They took us another prisoner camp. It was very cold. I do not remember the North Korean name. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We were very hungry, [INAUDIBLE] hungry. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]? >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We went to the [INAUDIBLE] city, city called [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> He said that you have nations by nations. They sent us to another section, and the US prisoners were taken to another section. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Some of the prisoners got sick, and since he's a medical serviceman, he treated them. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It is very long story. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I treated Turkish soldiers and US soldiers, too. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> They obeyed my advice. >> [INAUDIBLE] what you call the team took the ... boiled the clothes and washed them. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> So since they boiled the ... what you call it ... the clothes, I think, and they protected themselves from the ... [INAUDIBLE] I don't remember this ... >> Maggots. >> ... this insect. >> Maggot. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We could see the ground and the sky. It is difficult to tell the ... Unless you see the life or you live, you cannot understand it. It is difficult to tell. We just saw the ground, soil and sky. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Due to my prisoner time, they punished me. They put to prison. They take the prison, but they took the ... [INAUDIBLE] and others prison to punish him because he treated them.
>> Jay Detsuda. >> My name is Jay Detsuda. >> My name is Jay Detsuda [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I went to Korea in 1950. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I departed from İskenderun, one of the Turkish cities, departed from İskenderun and arrived in Korea within 23 days by ship. We traveled by ship. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was a signal serviceman during the Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I took training about communication at the signal school in Ankara, and I was selected for the Turkish Brigade as a signal serviceman. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thanks to my military service, I attained an occupation thanks to my training as a signal serviceman. I worked as a radio communication man up on the ships and the airports. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> When arrived in Korea, we stayed over a few days. Then we started to fight during the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Since we could look successful doing our work, then they sent us in the district area, the fort, and since they could look successful, they were sent to Manchuria. >> Manchuria. >> Manchuria area. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We arrived at the border, front line. We saw the real face of the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> At the front, we stayed between the two mountains or hills, and cannons [INAUDIBLE] were dropping around us, and we didn't fight face-to-face but inside of the war or the individual of the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was a signal serviceman. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There were the two steps. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We provided communications for the brigade. There were the two steps [INAUDIBLE] some of the information, first step. They submit the information. Second step. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It was very hard. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We put our jacket or military uniform. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Without uniform to fight is not suitable, but since it was very hot, we had to take off our uniforms. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We needed water ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... at the headquarters. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> While I was able to ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> There was a streak while I was going to water. I saw a streak. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I informed my commander and said that there was mines, bombs in the area. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We had the connection with the commanders of headquarters because I was the signal serviceman. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Unfortunately, I am having a problem to remember. I have to remember. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We received a message. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [INAUDIBLE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> For communication, there should be two people. One person should use the generator. Another person should use the radio. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I was ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> ... one ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I used the generator with my one hand, and I provide communication with my second hand. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> It was a very urgent message, so I passed this message to my commander. They needed weapons or support for the units or companies on the front line. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> We stayed at table for a short time. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> The princeps of the war, taught us on the ship and on the ground whenever we arrived to Korea territory. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> I also participated in the Cyprus peace operation too in 1974. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thank you so much. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >> Thank you. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]. >>
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My name is Usman Yashan Akem. I am a retired Sergeant Major. I was born in 1930. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I was graduated from my school in 1951. One year later in June 1952, I went to Korea. I participated in the Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My brigade was the Turk Brigade going to Korean War. I participated in the real conflicts, or conflict, I would say, conflicts. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I participated in the conflicts called Nevada Complex. It was really, really hard conflicts. It was the front lines of the Turkish Brigade. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> During these conflicts, that night, we lost 140 ... >> Seven. >> ... 147, [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], Turkish soldiers lost their lives. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> That was the truce from Communist Chinese troops fighting with us. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> During those conflicts, almost 3,500 Chinese soldiers lost their lives between 24 to 26 hours. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This battle is called one of the biggest battles. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> If we fought this area for 26 hours, maybe Chinese forces become the [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] and maybe it will make enough yield, loss of the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Chinese forces wanted to occupy most of the Korean territory and wanted to sit at the peace table, the powerful. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> After this war, after this battle, the first version of the UN forces push the Chinese forces to sit at the peace table. Others, I think they wouldn't sit at the peace table. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> After the Korean War, I continued my job in the Turkish army, and 8 years ago, I retired from the Turkish army. It was 8 years ago. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I have been serving ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I have been serving at the Turkish War Veteran's Association here as the Chief of Social Affairs with my president together. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> During the Korean War, I observed. I saw the situation of Korea. It was really brilliant. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> When I visited Korea later, I saw they have evolved. During the Korean War, there was another job we have to do to protect the children. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I visited Korea after the war a few times. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I attended some activities over there. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> After a visit, I saw that Korea do a lot and every other year. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We have peace at the 741 Turkish soldiers lost their lives. After we saw that, observed that Korea do a lot, so we didn't fought for nothing. We have to deal with North Korea now. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Our main wish and hope to Korea be united and will be one country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I wish happiness for the Korean people. Thank you. >> Thank you. I have one question. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Everyone says he's a hero, right? So maybe he cannot say, but I want to know about his heroism. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He says army soldiers, that's his job. He did his job and served during the Korean War, so maybe other people will consider his service as heroism, but he says he cannot say. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> There are those who died but never forgotten. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> They're real in his memories. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I will show you my pictures and what I did. I will show my pictures, so it would be better if you side my service, my heroism. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> When I went to Korea, my picture ... [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My picture ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I was 22 years old when I ... >> Handsome! >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] [ Chatter ] >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Maybe you can tell me in English about his heroism. >> He prefer to show his pictures. >> Oh, that wasn't the picture? >> Oh, no. Oh, no. >> Oh, got it. Okay. We'll do it after. Okay. >> So after you you see his pictures ... >> Yes. >> ... he wants you to decide about his heroism. >> Okay, okay. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]
>> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My name is Yusef Gonidan. I am a retired sergeant major, and I work at the Turkish War Veteran's Association as the deputy president, and I went to Korean War voluntarily. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I was ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> When I went to Korean War, I was at the age of 19 years old, and when I went to Korea, cease-fire decision was taken, and ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We changed to the US division, 25th division of the US, 25th division of the ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We take their place. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I stayed at the front line for 6 months. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> As I did a sergeant major reconnaissance, I served at the reconnaissance unit. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Six months later, US division took our place, and we withdrew. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Fourteen months later, we returned to Turkey. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I know that Turkish troops fought during the Korean War, as if they fought in their country, as if they are defensing their country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> In the beginning, I said that I went to Korean War voluntarily. If you ask me why I went voluntarily, freedom of a country was taken his hand ... Or one country was losing his freedom, so I wanted to protect the freedom of the one independence country, independent country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Twenty-one thousand ... >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Twenty-one thousand Turkish soldiers participate in Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Six more Turkish military served in Korea after the cease-fire. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Korean government wanted to keep the US, British and Turkish troops in their country after the cease-fire. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Even though 21,000 Turkish soldiers served or fought in Korean War, later, we continued to send in our troops to Korea. Altogether, 57,000 Turkish soldiers served in Korean War. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I visited Korea number three times after the war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I like the Korean people very much. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> They like us too. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Whenever they see us, they show their respect. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Whenever I see these [FOREIGN LANGUAGE], I was on the edge of crying. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I feel that Korea is my second country. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> It's why I named ... My son's name means war. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] means war. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Thank you very much for listening. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Thank you. >> Thank you. >> Thank you very much. >> [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]
[FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> My name is Zeche Coral. >> My name is Zeche Coral. >> I am [INAUDIBLE] official of the Korean War. When I heard Korean War break out or broke out, I want to go to Korea War with my own wish. I applied to my commander, company commander, but unfortunately, he didn't accept my application. When he went to leave, I applied again to another secondary commander, and fortunately, my secondary commander accepted by application. Then I went to Korea. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Why did he volunteer? [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Korea was in a difficult situation and for their freedom, for the freedom of world, I wanted to fight in Korea to protect it. I was alone. I was not married, so I wanted to fight for the freedom of Korea and ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> It was ... My company was heavy weapons. I couldn't remember name of weapon to use against planes. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> There was a [INAUDIBLE] hill over there. I use my weapon against the planes, airplanes I mean, and we fought throughout night, until the morning. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> This was very strategically very important hill. That's why opposing forces tried to seize this hill, and we tried to seize this hill. It was very important hill. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Because of the ... This hill can have about 5 meters down under the bullets. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Opposing forces couldn't come to seize this hill, and also we couldn't [INAUDIBLE] to seize the hill. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Namuch Arguch was the commander of the unit, Turkish battalion. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He was the commander [INAUDIBLE], and unfortunately, one of the [INAUDIBLE] was murdered during this battle or during this conflict. His culture is in southern part of Turkey nowadays, and there is a park of this day. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He was murdered over there. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> It was out on the front line. He was murdered, or he was lost his life during this conflict. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> He was over there too [INAUDIBLE]. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> We were stuck in our cable telephone system during that time. Unfortunately, we didn't have the communication [INAUDIBLE]. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> [INAUDIBLE] we established our cables, and we provide communication. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Then we put up breaks, our communication, and our communication soldiers came and manned the system. We had these kind of difficulties for communication. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> Unfortunately, during that time, it was very crucial time, and other people running away ... [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> It was very bad time. I like Korea very much. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> When I went second time in the frame of a return program, it was really different, and Korea during war very bad, and I couldn't recognize. >> Recognize? >> Sorry? Recognize, or I couldn't believe this. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> In the frame of return program, I visit Korea second time. During that time, they hosted us at a five-star hotel, and they showed us all of Korea. I am really thankful. I was really pleased. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> During return program, there were different people in different countries like Greek, US or other people. [INAUDIBLE] Korean people, especially other people, so the Turkish black on our clothes, so they came and kissed us. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> There were Americans, American people and Belgium, but I am really thankful they came to us and hugged us and kissed us. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> I don't forget. I do not forget their interest to us. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> But I am really happy I served Korean War. >> Me too. I'm very happy too. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE] >> And I am very thankful. Thank you. [FOREIGN LANGUAGE]